Direct translation technics

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Direct translation techniques
Direct translation techniques are used when structural and conceptual elements of the source language can be transposed into the target language direct translation techniques include:
Borrowing
Calque
Literal translation.
Borrowing
Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation.Many English words are “borrowed” into other languages; for example software in the field of technology and funk in culture. English also borrows numerous words from other languages; abbatoire, café, passé and resumé from French; hamburguer and kindergarten from german; bandana, musk and sugar from Sanskrit.
Borrowed words are often printed in italics when they are considered to be“foreign”.
Calque
A calque or loan translation (itself a calque of german lehnübersetzung) is a phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word for word. You often see them in specialized or internationalized fields, such as quality assurance (aseguramiento de calidad, assurance qualité taken from English). Examples that have been absorbed into English include standpoint andbeer garden from german standpunkt and biergarten; breakfast from French déjeuner (which now means lunch in europe, but maintains the same meaning of breakfast in Québec). Some calques can become widely accepted in the target language (such as standpoint, beer garden and breakfast and Spanish peso mosca and casa banca from English flyweight and white house). The meaning other calques can be ratherobscure for most people, especially when they relate to specific vocations or subjects such as science and law. Solucion de compromiso is a Spanish attorneys understand it, the meaning is not really understood by the layman. An unsuccessful calque can be extremely unnatural, and can cause unwanted humor, often interpreted as indicating the lack of expertise of the translator in the targetlanguage.

Literal translation
A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others depend on the sentence structure: el equipo esta trabajando para terminar el informe would translate into English as the team is working to finish the report. Sometimes it works and sometimes is does not. For example, the Spanish sentences above could not be translated into French orgerman using this technique because the French and german structures are different. And because one sentence can be translated across languages does not mean that all sentences can be translated literally. El equipo experimentado esta trabajando para terminar el informe translates into English as the experienced team is working to finish the report (“experienced” ant “team” are reversed).Oblique translation techniques
Oblique translation techniques are used when structural or conceptual elements of the source language cannot be directly translated without altering meaning or upsetting the grammatical and stylistics elements of the target language.
Oblique translation techniques include:
• Transposition
• Modulation
• Reformulation or equivalence
• Adaptation• Compensation

Transposition
This is the process where parts of speech change their sequence when they are translated (blue ball becomes boule bleue in French). It is a sense a shift of word class. Grammatical structures are often different in different languages. He likes swimming translates as er schwimmt gern in german. Transposition is often used between English and Spanishbecause of the preferred position of the verb in the sentence: English often has the verb near the beginning of a sentence; Spanish can have it closer to the end. This requires that the translator knows that it is possible to replace a word category in the target language without altering the meaning of the source text, for example: English hand knitted (noun + participle) becomes Spanish...
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