Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon
Facultad de Ciencias Politicas y Administracion Publica
Omar Yared Leyva Cantu
Historia del Pensamiento Politico II
Lic. Salvador Gonzalez
Ensayo capitulos 18-25
Monterrey, Nuevo Leon a 23 de noviembre de 2011
Starting with chapter 18 which concerns the subject of the Italian thinker Machiavelli, thechapter begins with the failure of the conciliar party to carry out the principles of the medieval constitutionalism, the revival of the papal absolutism in the 15th century, which foresaw the degradation that had been suffered for more than one century and how this was paralleled with the big growth of the monarchs in West Europe, in many kingdoms the royal power had grown at the expense of otherinstitutions, such as clergy, nobility and parliament, and it seemed virtually permanent, with the exception of England.
These changes in the political thought reflected change in the fabric of the European society, which were everywhere, by the end of the 15th century all economic changes that had been going on for years produced an accumulation in the effects that amounted to a revolutionaryremodeling of the institutions, by the end of the 16th century the absolute monarchy was quickly becoming the predominant type of ruling all around Western Europe, it helped to create a sense of grief for the medieval institutions that were destroyed, the monarchy overturned the feudal constitutionalism and the free city-states that people depended a lot upon was the point were absolute monarchy roseto power.
Machiavelli’s most relevant books are The Prince and Discourses on the first ten books of Titus Livius, mentioned because of the approach that they have, the causes of the rise and decline of the states, and the decisions that people can make to keep it at a permanent level, The Prince talks about the perspective of the author during the time he worked with the Medici, one of thewealthiest families in Italy, powerful and influential in the decision-making process.
We now jump to Chapter 19, which talks about the early protestant reformers, which begins the protestant reformation mixing political theory with different religious beliefs, with questions of theological dogma, but nowhere else was the religious party, Protestant or Catholic, that connected the politicalconvictions to the theology that it professed, that is because Protestants and Catholics are alike and share the same heritage.
Protestants had a choice, which is what Catholics always had done, the reformation produced nothing as a protestant political theory anymore than the middle Ages produced a Catholic political theory, the reformation along with the secretarial controversies that gave rise andaccelerated the tendency to increase and consolidate the power of the monarchies, Luther found out that the success of the reformation lied in obtaining the help of the princes in England, the reformation was executed by Henry VIII in order to extend the power throughout Europe.
The most interesting point to observe was that the first reformers, Luther and Calvin stood on substantially identicalground, relative to the moral issue, that is to say they held the view that resistance rulers in all circumstances some things can be possible with enough wish to do what is right.
In France and Scotland, Calvinists were spreading this theory and also the one that states that political resistance can be OK as a mean of religious form, John Knox was the one who leaded the movement in Scotland,which succeeded by a popular force against a party that opposed to their rights.
We go now with chapter 20 leaving us with the royalist and anti-royalist theories and the people that created them.
Shortly after the death of Calvin in 1564, the lines were already drawn for the religious wars, which Luther said that they were going to fill the world with blood, divisions of territory made...