Historia universal

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As bad as the economic and physical situation was for Southern blacks in the aftermath of the Civil War, conditions were even worse for the region's white population. F The Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery throughout the South in 1863. F Republicans were afraid that the quick return of the Southern states to Congress would lead to more Democratic votes, thereby increasing the likelihoodthat Congress would establish protective tariffs and subsidize railroads. F President Lincoln believed that a lenient Reconstruction policy would encourage Southern Unionists and other Southern Whigs to become Republicans and build a stronger party in the South. T John Wilkes Booth acted completely on his own in plotting to murder President Lincoln. F Characteristics of Andrew Johnson'spersonality that hampered him as president were that he was too polite and deferential to assume any leadership initiative. F The Tenure of Office Act and the Command of the Army Act were passed by Congress to prevent Southern states from sending former Confederates to Congress or from having them control the state militia companies. T Even thought the House's impeachment charges were nominally based onspecific "high crimes and misdemeanors," Andrew Johnson was actually convicted by the Senate and removed from the presidency for petty political reasons. F Despite the end of slavery, most black agricultural labor in the South in the late nineteenth century continued to emulate the gang-labor system in which slaves lived in concentrated quarters and worked in groups under the constant supervisionof a white field boss suggestive of the prewar overseer. F During the period from just before the Civil War to just after Reconstruction, per capita income for African Americans rose significantly while per capita income for whites dropped. T In the 1870s, the expanded printing of greenback paper currency was advocated by those, especially debtors, who believed that inflation would help theeconomy. T In the context of Reconstruction, "redeemed" was used to refer to freedmen who had returned to their original slave plantations as workers after running away during or immediately following the war. F The Crédit Mobilier was a railroad construction company involved in scandal during the Grant administration. T Hamilton Fish was Grant's secretary of state whose actions worsened relationsbetween the United States and Great Britain. F Alaska was called "Seward's Folly" because of his aborted attempt to sell the territory to the Russian czar as a method of financing the cost of maintaining troops in the South during Reconstruction. F In the period from the end of Reconstruction into the twentieth century, the Democratic Party was the political party of the vast majority ofSouthern whites. T In general, the "Redeemer" ("Bourbon") political regimes were inclined to raise taxes to expand services, especially public education. F By 1900, the portion of the nation's manufacturing output produced in the South was about three times what it had been on the eve of the Civil War. F The portion of Southern farmers who were tenants, cash, or sharecrop, increased markedly fromReconstruction to 1900. T In the period from Reconstruction to 1900, the crop-lien system helped force many Southern farmers in the piney woods and mountains from cash crop commercial farming into a ruggedly independent sort of subsistence farming. F By the late 1890s, a significantly smaller portion of Southern blacks was allowed to vote than in the late 1860s. T Californios was the pejorativenickname that established settlers applied to the eastern Americans and Europeans who immigrated to the West Coast in the late 1840s and 1850s. F The Indians of the Plains and the Pacific Coast proved to be remarkably resistant to the diseases that afflicted Anglo-European settlers. F Although most historians have previously treated the buffalo as critical to Plains Indian culture prior to the...
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