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Chapter 15

Condicional sentences type 2

(If I had some money…)

When we imagine something which probably won’t happen, we use the second conditional to talk about it.

← We use a past tense verb in the if part of the sentence (the if-clause).
← We use would with the base form of the verb in the other part of the sentence (the main clause)
← When weput the if clause first, we usually use a comma (,) after it.
← We can also put the main clause first. We often use the short form of would (‘d.
← We can use might or could in the main clause in the main clause instead of would
← After if we often use were instead of was for all persons.


← I might have some old newspapers in my garage, if I sell them I willhave some money.

← I might go to the supermarket tonight or tomorrow, if my mom give me money.

← Would you like to come back later and pick up them?

← She might come this afternoon or she might come tomorrow morning.

← I might go to the drugstore, if my mother is sick.

Chapter 16

Relative clauses

(The photo I like best)

Who, which, thatand whose are relative pronouns. They introduce relative clauses.

← We use who for people
← We use which for things
← When who/which/that is the object of the relative clause, we can leave it out.
← To show possession we use whose.
← Prepositions (in, from, etc.) come at the end of the relative clause.


← I received an e-mail from aperson who works on a T.V show

← He has a friend who records a new group.

← I have an uncle who works in a shop.

← I have a cousin who lives in Spain.

← I have a grandmother who has 100 years old.
Chapter 17

Need + -ing form; have/get something done

(it needs cutting)

After need we use the -ing form to say that something should be done to aperson or a thing.

Have/ get something done

← We use have + object + past participle to say that somebody does a job for us. We do not do it ourselves.
← Be careful with the word order.
← Sometimes get is used instead of have. It sometimes sounds more informal.


← Juan’s t-shirt needs cleaning.

← Maria’s hair needs ironing.

← Jose’scar needs cleaning.

← Regina’s hair needs combing.

← Kevin’s shoes needs washing.

Chapter 18

Indirect questions; indirect commands and requests

(Nick told Ben)

Indirect questions:

← In indirect questions the word order is not the same as in direct questions. It is the same as in statements. We do not use do / does/ did to make indirect questions.We do not put a question mark at the end.

← If there is no question word (who, when, etc) in the direct question, we begin the indirect question with if or whether.

← Reporting verbs for indirect questions are ask, want to know, wonder. The change of tense is the same as for indirect statements.

o Direct speech Indirect speecho Present …… past
o Past …… past perfect
o Present perfect …… past perfect
o Past perfect …… no change
o Will …… would
o May …… might
o Shall …… should
o Can …… could

← Ifthere is a question word in the direct question, we repeat in the indirect question

← Indirect commands and requests:

← We form indirect commands with tell + person + to + infinitive
▪ we use not to for negative commands.

← We can make indirect requests with ask + person + to + infinitive


← You hurt yourself.

← He cured himself....
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