Iodine

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1. NAME

1.1 Substance

Iodine (USAN)

(Fleeger, 1994)

1.2 Group

Antiseptics and disinfectants (D08)/Iodine product/ (D08G)

(ATC classification index, [WHO] 1992]

1.3 Synonyms

Eranol, Iodin (French), Iodine Colloidal, Iodine Crystals,
Iodine Sublimed, Iodine-127, Iodio (Italian),Jod (German, Polish), Jood (Dutch), Iode, Iodum, Jodum, Yodo.

(Reynolds, 1993)

1.4 Identification numbers

1.4.1 CAS number

7553-56-2

1.4.2 Other numbers

RTECS

NN 1575000

1.5 Brand names, Trade names

Betadine (Datlabs, Zimbabwe); Ethiodol (Savage, USA);Guttajod (Blucher, Schering, Germany), Iodex (Smith Kline &
French, Australia, Switzerland etc) Fodex (Menley & James,
UK); Sclerodine (Ondee, Canada); Telepaque (Rhone Poulenc,
France); Urografin, Gastrofin (Rhone Poulenc, U.K.)

(To be completed by each Centre using local data)

1.6 Manufacturers, Importers

DATLABS,Zimbabwe

(To be completed by each Centre using local data)

1.7 Presentation, Formulation

Iodine is available in solid form, in solution, and in
tinctures, e.g.

Povidone iodine antiseptic solution, surgical scrub 7.5%,
povidone iodine 200 mg pessaries, povidone antiseptic
ointment 100 mg/g.

Tinctureof iodine, USP, contains 2% cent iodine and 2.4%
sodium iodide diluted in 50% ethanol.

Aqueous solutions of iodine are Strong Iodine Solution USP
(compound iodine solution, Lugol's solution) containing 5%
iodine and 10% potassium iodide, and Iodine Topical Solution
(USP) containing 2% iodine and 2.4% potassium iodide. AqueousIodine Solution BP contains the same amount of free and
combined iodine per ml (130 mg/mL) as does the USP Strong
Iodine Solution. (Reynolds, 1993)

Potassium iodide aqueous cough expectorant.

Povidone-iodide (Betadine) is an organically bound iodide
compound containing 1% iodine in a water soluble base. Otherorganically bound iodide compounds are undecoylium chloride,
diiodo hydroxyquin, tetraglycine hydroperiodide (60% iodine).
These organic iodide compounds release iodine slowly and have
a toxicity of one fifth of their iodine content (Haddad &
Winchester, 1983).

Povidone iodine antiseptic solution and surgical scrub are in
5 litrecontainers, pessaries, ointment (see 1.7).

2. SUMMARY

2.1 Main risks and target organs

Concentrated iodine is corrosive. Main risks in acute
exposure to high iodine concentrations are largely due to the
highly corrosive effect of iodine on the entire
gastrointestinal tract and resultant shock. If rupture occursmediastinitis or peritonitis develop.

Target organs are mucous membranes of pharynx, larynx and
oesophagus for the concentrated iodine, and thyroid for the
diluted form as a systemic effect. Iodine is not a frequent
cause of toxicity in the amounts available in the household.

2.2 Summary of clinical effects

Ingestion of iodine may causecorrosive effects such as
oedema of the glottis, with asphyxia, aspiration pneumonia,
pulmonary oedema and shock, as well as vomiting and bloody
diarrhoea. The CNS , cardiovascular and renal toxicity
following acute iodine ingestion appear to be due to the
corrosive gastroenteritis and resultant shock. Vomiting,
hypotension...
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