The Mexican independence movement is within the Enlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the late eighteenth century. At that time the educated elite began to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonies. Changes in social and political structure resulting from the Bourbon reforms, which was compounded by a deep economic crisis in New Spain, also generated unease among some segments of the population.
The French occupation of the metropolis in 1808 in New Spain sparked a political crisis that led to the armed movement. In that year, King Charles IV and Ferdinand VII abdicated in favor on Napoleon Bonaparte, who left the crown of Spain to his brother Joseph Bonaparte. In response, the City of Mexico, with support from the Viceroy José de Iturrigaray-claimed sovereignty in the absence of the legitimate king, the reaction led to a coup against the viceroy and the jail led to the ringleaders of the movement.
Despite the defeat of the natives in Mexico City in 1808, other cities in New Spain gathered small groups of conspirators who tried to follow in the footsteps of the City of Mexico. Such was the case with the conspiracy of Valladolid, discovered in 1809 and whose participants were put in prison. In 1810, Queretaro conspirators were about to suffer the same fate but, to be discovered, opted to take up arms on September 16 with the peasant and indigenous inhabitants of the town of Dolores (Guanajuato), convened by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.
Since 1810, the independence movement passed through several stages, as successive leaders were imprisoned or executed by forces loyal to Spain. At first he... [continua]
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