The Mexican independence movement is within theEnlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the late eighteenth century. At that time the educated elite began to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonies. Changes in social and political structure resulting from the Bourbon reforms, which was compounded by a deep economic crisis in New Spain, also generated unease among some segments of the population.
The French occupation of themetropolis in 1808 in New Spain sparked a political crisis that led to the armed movement. In that year, King Charles IV and Ferdinand VII abdicated in favor on Napoleon Bonaparte, who left the crown of Spain to his brother Joseph Bonaparte. In response, the City of Mexico, with support from the Viceroy José de Iturrigaray-claimed sovereignty in the absence of the legitimate king, the reaction led to acoup against the viceroy and the jail led to the ringleaders of the movement.
Despite the defeat of the natives in Mexico City in 1808, other cities in New Spain gathered small groups of conspirators who tried to follow in the footsteps of the City of Mexico. Such was the case with the conspiracy of Valladolid, discovered in 1809 and whose participants were put in prison. In 1810, Queretaroconspirators were about to suffer the same fate but, to be discovered, opted to take up arms on September 16 with the peasant and indigenous inhabitants of the town of Dolores (Guanajuato), convened by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.
Since 1810, the independence movement passed through several stages, as successive leaders were imprisoned or executed by forces loyal to Spain. At first heclaimed the sovereignty of Ferdinand VII of Spain and its colonies, but later assumed leadership positions more radical social issues including the abolition of slavery. José María Morelos y Pavón summoned the breakaway province to form the Congress of Anahuac, which gave the insurgency of its own legal framework. After the defeat of Morelos, the movement is reduced to a guerrilla war. By 1820,there were only some rebel groups, especially in the Sierra Madre del Sur and Veracruz.
The rehabilitation of the Constitution of Cadiz in 1820 encouraged the change of position of the elite New Spain, which until then had supported the Spanish rule. To see their interests affected, Creole royalists decided to support the independence of New Spain, which sought to ally themselves with the rebelresistance. Agustin de Iturbide led the military arm of the conspirators, and in early 1821 could be found with Vicente Guerrero. Both proclaimed the Plan de Iguala, which called for the union of all factions and insurgents had the support of the aristocracy and the clergy of New Spain. Finally, the independence of Mexico was consummated on September 27, 1821.
After that, New Spain became theMexican Empire, a short-lived Catholic monarchy gave way to a federal republic in 1823, including internal conflict and the separation of Central America.
After several attempts to recapture, including the issuance of Isidro Barradas in 1829, Spain recognized Mexico's independence in 1836, after the death of King Fernando VII.
En Español: La Independencia de México fue la consecuencia de unproceso político y social resuelto por la vía de las armas, que puso fin al dominio español en los territorios de Nueva España. La guerra por la independencia mexicana se extendió desde el Grito de Dolores, el 16 de septiembre de 1810, hasta la entrada del Ejército Trigarante a la Ciudad de México, el 27 de septiembre de 1821.
El movimiento independentista mexicano tiene como marco la...