It is located in the central and western part of South America, it limits to the N with Ecuador, to the NE with Colombia, to the E with Brazil, to the SE with Bolivia, to the S with Chile and to the W with the Pacific Ocean. The marine domain is called "Sea of Grau" (in honor of a Peruvian Hero Admiral Miguel Grau), reaches a distance of 200 marine miles from the coastline.
ThePeruvian State has also affirmed its presence in the Antarctic like Advisory Member of the Treaty of the Antarctic.
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Peru is in western South America and shares borders with Chile (to the south), Bolivia (southeast), Brazil (northeast), Colombia (north) and Ecuador (northwest). It has three major regions: a narrow coastal belt, the wide Andean mountains and the Amazon Basin.The coastal strip is predominantly desert, but contains Peru's major cities and its best highway, the Carretera Panamericana. The Andes comprise two principal ranges - Cordillera Occidental and Oriental - and includes Huascarán (6770m/22,200ft), Peru's highest mountain. To the east is the Amazon Basin, a region of tropical lowland, which is drained by the Maranon and Ucayali rivers.
Bird andmarine life is abundant along Peru's desert coast, with colonies of sea lion, the Humboldt penguin, Chilean flamingo, Peruvian pelican, Inca tern and the brown booby endemic to the region. Common highland birds include the Andean condor, puna ibis and a variety of hummingbird. The highlands are also home to cameloids such as the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuña, while the eastern slopes of theAndes are the haunts of jaguars, spectacled bears and tapirs. Peru's flora contains a number of hardy and unique plants, including patches of Polylepis woodland found at extreme heights. The vast wealth of wildlife is protected in a system of national parks and reserves with almost 30 areas covering nearly 7% of the country.
Peru's climate can be divided into two seasons - wet and dry - thoughthis varies, depending on the geographical region. The coast and western Andean slopes are generally dry, with the summer falling between December and April; during the rest of the year, the garúa (coastal fog) moves in and the sun is rarely seen. In the Andes, the dry season is from May to September, while the wet season takes up the remainder of the year. On the eastern slopes of the Andes, thedrier months are similar to the highlands, though the wet season (January to April) is more pronounced.
In the whole Peruvian territory rules the same hour, without hour change in any time of the year.
The hour in Peru is -5 GMT (UT)
Lima, capital of Peru, is located in longitude 77° O.
Is the 47th largest in the world, Peru is an emerging, market-oriented economycharacterized by a high level of foreign trade. In 2010 Peru's per capita income (PPP) is bordering $10,000. Peru has a Human Development Index score of 0.806; 36.2% of its total population is poor, including 12.6% that is extremely poor. Poverty has steadily decreased since 2004, when nearly half the country's population was under the poverty line.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 29million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.
Geographical distribution of population:
North and central Mountain: 19.4%
North Coast: 16.9%
Andean trapeze: 15.7%
South Coast: 8.2%
Ethnic people in Peru:
Indians (Quechua and aimaras): 48%
Mestizos (cholos): 32%
Black and mulattos: 6%
CULTURE: Cultural tourism forms the largest sector of the tourism industry in Peru. Pre-Columbian civilizations — most notably...