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Racism
Racism is the belief that the genetic factors which constitute race, ethnicity, or nationality are a primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that ethnic differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.[1][2][3] Racism's effects are called "racial discrimination." In the case of institutional racism, certain racial groups may be denied rights or benefits, orreceive preferential treatment.
Racial discrimination typically points out taxonomic differences between different groups of people, although anyone may be discriminated against on an ethnic or cultural basis, independently of their somatic differences. According to the United Nations conventions, there is no distinction between the term racial discrimination and ethnicity discrimination.
Thereis some evidence that the meaning of the term has changed over time, and that earlier definitions of racism involved the simple belief that human populations are divided into separate races.[4] Many biologists, anthropologists, and sociologists reject this taxonomy in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.[5]Etymology
The word racism as a distinct term did not appear in the English language until the 1930s.[6] While the term "race hatred" had been used by sociologist Frederick Hertz in the late 1920s, "racism" was coined as the title of the early 1930s book by sexologist and homosexual activist Magnus Hirschfeld
Definitions
The term racism includes both the belief in racial differences, as well asassociated discrimination.[1] Although the term racism usually denotes race-based prejudice, violence, dislike, discrimination, or oppression, the term can also have varying and contested definitions. Racialism is a related term, sometimes intended to avoid these negative meanings. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, racism is a belief or ideology that all members of each racial group possesscharacteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially to distinguish it as being either superior or inferior to another racial group or racial groups. [7]
The Merriam-Webster's Dictionary defines racism as a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority or inferiority of a particular racial group, andthat it is also the prejudice based on such a belief. The Macquarie Dictionary defines racism as: "the belief that human races have distinctive characteristics which determine their respective cultures, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule or dominate others."
Legal
The UN does not define "racism", however it does define "racial discrimination":according to the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,
the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights andfundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life.[8]
This definition does not make any difference between discrimination based on ethnicity and race, in part because the distinction between the two remains debatable among anthropologists.[9] Similarly, in British law the phrase racial group means "any group of people who are defined by reference totheir race, colour, nationality (including citizenship) or ethnic or national origin".[10]
Sociological
Some sociologists have defined racism as a system of group privilege. In Portraits of White Racism, David Wellman has defined racism as "culturally sanctioned beliefs, which, regardless of intentions involved, defend the advantages whites have because of the subordinated position of racial...
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