Pic 16F84A

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PIC in Practice

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PIC in Practice
A Project-Based Approach

D. W. Smith

AMSTERDAM  BOSTON  HEIDELBERG  LONDON
NEW YORK  OXFORD  PARIS  SAN DIEGO
SAN FRANCISCO  SINGAPORE  SYDNEY  TOKYO

Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier

Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP
30 Corporate Road, Burlington, MA01803
First published 2002
Reprinted 2003 (twice), 2005
Second edition 2006
Copyright ß 2006, Dave Smith. All rights reserved
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the
prior written permission of the publisher
Permission may be soughtdirectly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department
in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@
elsevier.com. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at
http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material
Notice
No responsibility is assumed by thepublisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property
as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any
methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid
advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug
dosages should be made
British Library Cataloguingin Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress
ISBN 13: 978-0 75-066826-2
ISBN 10: 0-75-066826-1
For information on all Newnes publications visit
our website at books.elsevier.com
Typeset by Cepha Imaging Pvt Ltd,Bangalore, India
Printed and bound in Great Britain

Contents
Introduction

1

ix

2

Introduction to the PIC microcontroller

1

The aim of the book
Program memory
Microcontroller clock
The microcontroller system
Types of microcontroller
Microcontroller specification
Using the microcontroller
1 Microcontroller hardware
2 Programming the microcontroller

1
2
3
3
4
5
6
69

3

Programming the 16F84 microcontroller

11

Microcontroller inputs and output (I/O)
Timing with the microcontroller
Programming the microcontroller
Entering data
The header for the 16F84
Program example
Saving and assembling the code
PICSTART PLUS programmer
Programming flowchart
Problem: flashing two LEDs
Solution to problem, flashing two LEDs

12
12
12
13
14
1619
23
26
26
27

4

Introductory projects

29

LED_Flasher2
SOS
Code for SOS circuit
Flashing 8 LEDs
Chasing 8 LEDs
Traffic lights
More than 8 outputs

29
30
30
33
35
39
45

Headers, porting code – which micro?

47

Factors affecting the choice of the microcontroller
Choosing the microcontroller
Headers

47
48
49

vi Contents
5

6

Using inputs

64Switch flowchart
Program development
Scanning (using multiple inputs)
Switch scanning
Control application – a hot air blower

66
67
73
73
77

8

82
82
87
88

Keypad scanning

93

Programming example for the keypad

7

Understanding the headers
The 16F84
16F84 memory map
The 16F818

94

9

Program examples

110

Counting events
Look up table
7-Segmentdisplay
Numbers larger than 255
Long time intervals
One hour delay

110
115
115
126
133
136

10

The 16C54 microcontroller

139

Header for the 16C54
16C54 memory map

139
142

11

Alpha numeric displays

143

Display pin identification
Configuring the display
Writing to the display
Program example
Program operation
Display configuration
Writing to the display...
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