Victoria was born in London on 24 May 1819, the only child of Edward, Duke of Kent, and Victoria Maria Louisa of Saxe-Coburg. She succeeded her uncle, William IV, in 1837, at the age of 18, and her reign spanned the rest of the century. In 1840, she married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. For the next 20 years they lived in closeharmony and had a family of nine children, many of whom eventually married into the European monarchy.
On her accession, Victoria adopted the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne as her political mentor. In 1840, his influence was replaced by that of Prince Albert. The German prince never really won the favour of the British public, and only after 17 years was he given official recognition, withthe title of 'prince consort'. Victoria nonetheless relied heavily on Albert and it was during his lifetime that she was most active as a ruler. Britain was evolving into a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch had few powers and was expected to remain above party politics, although Victoria did sometimes express her views very forcefully in private.
Victoria never fully recovered fromAlbert's death in 1861 and she remained in mourning for the rest of her life. Her subsequent withdrawal from public life made her unpopular, but during the late 1870s and 1880s she gradually returned to public view and, with increasingly pro-imperial sentiment, she was restored to favour with the British public. After the Indian Mutiny in 1857, the government of India was transferred from the EastIndia Company to the Crown. In 1877, Victoria became empress of India. Her empire also included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and large parts of Africa. During this period, Britain was largely uninvolved in European affairs, apart from the Crimean War from 1853 - 1856.
Victoria's Golden Jubilee in 1887 and her Diamond Jubilee in 1897 were celebrated with great enthusiasm. Having witnessed arevolution in British government, huge industrial expansion and the growth of a worldwide empire, Victoria died on 22 January 1901 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight.
ROLE OF WOMEN
Women in the Victorian era
The status of Women in the Victorian Era is often seen as an illustration of the striking discrepancy between England's national power and wealth and what many, then and now, considerits appalling social conditions. During the Era symbolized by the reign of British monarch Queen Victoria, difficulties escalated for women because of the vision of the "ideal women" shared by most in the society. The legal rights of married women were similar to those of children. They could not vote, sue, or own property. Also, they were seen as pure and clean. Because of this view, theirbodies were seen as temples that should not be adorned with makeup nor used for such pleasurable things as sex. The role of women was to have children and tend the house. They could not hold a job unless it was that of a teacher, nor were they allowed to have their own checking accounts or savings accounts. In the end, they were to be treated as saints, but saints that had no legal rights.
HISTORICFATCS (Industrial Revolution)
The Victorian era saw the biggest change in England’s history, with the population rising from 13.897 million in 1831 to 32.528 million in 1901. The two main factors that affect a population are - fertility rates and mortality rates. England was the first country to undergo an Industrial Revolution. Many countries in the 19th century didn’t manage to increase thepopulation so rapidly and successfully throughout the Industrial Revolution - believed mainly to be because of the ‘Malthusian trap’ theory; Thomas Malthus argued that ‘in every age and in every state’ the population increase was unsuccessful because of the lack of subsistence. He had a very negative view on the increase of population, which he viewed in 1798 - just before the start of the...