Relative clauses contain at least a subject and a verb and are used to modify nouns, pronouns, or sometimes whole phrases. A relative pronoun establishes the link to what is being modified (which is called the "antecedent"). In English, "who," "that," and "which" are the most common relative pronouns
|A person or thing |WHO/WHICH/THAT|Additional Information |
|My friend |Who |drives that sport car is a lawyer |
|I know |That |He doesn´t like to drive fast |
|It is the car |Which |Run so fastI saw it in television |
• I know an old lady who swallowed a fly
• He who lives in a glass house should change his clothes in the basement."
• The man with whom you were speaking is my husband."
• The collector bought the socks that Babe Ruth was wearing when he hit his 59th homer.
• He told a joke that we had already heard 100 times.• Someone whose nose runs and feet smell is built upside-down.
• Bertelsmann, which is a privately-owned German company, is the world's largest publisher."
• He wears his baseball cap backwards, which makes him look particularly stupid.
The use of if
Although the rules of grammar for conditional sentences — usually those using the word ("if") — can get fairly complex, in the vast majorityof cases the decision of which verb tense to use after if is easy to remember.
The first thing is to remember that except in very rare cases, if is never followed by a verb in the present-tense subjunctive mood.
That said, there are basically two types of if clauses that become part of a sentence
Here are some examples of open conditions:
• If I have money, I'll go on a trip.• If the house is used, we advise that you have a professional inspect it.
• If you leave, I'm leaving too.
• If Sam wins, I'll cry.
Here are some examples of unlikely or contrary-to-fact conditions:
• If I were you, I would take appropriate responsibility
• If I had the money, I would go to the movies.
• If she had had the money, she would have gone to the movies.• If Sam were to win, I'd cry.
Big Ben is the nickname of the Great Bell of Westminster, the hour bell of the Great Clock, hanging in the Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, the home of the Houses of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
One theory holds that the bell was named "Big Ben" after Sir Benjamin Hall, the Chief Commissioner of Works. Another theory suggests that atthe time anything which was heaviest of its kind was called "Big Ben" after the then-famous prizefighter Benjamin Caunt, making it a natural name for the bell.
Big Ben is commonly taken to be the name of the clock tower itself, but this is incorrect - the tower is simply known as The Clock Tower. Sometimes, the tower is referred to as St. Stephen's Tower, but this title is not used by staff ofthe Palace of Westminster.
The bell weighs 13.8 tonnes (13 tons 10cwt 99lb), with a striking hammer weighing 203.2kg (4cwt), and was originally tuned to E. There is delay of 5 seconds between strikes. It is a common misconception that Big Ben is the heaviest bell in Britain. In fact, it is only the third heaviest, the second heaviest being Great George found at Liverpool Cathedral (14 tons15cwt 2qr 2lb) and the heaviest being Great Paul found at St Paul's Cathedral (16 tons 14cwt 2qt 19lb).
The original tower designs demanded a 14 ton bell to be struck with a 6cwt hammer. A bell was produced by John Warner and Sons in 1856, weighing 16 tons. However, this cracked under test in the Palace Yard. The contract for the bell was then given to the Whitechapel Bell Foundry, who in 1858...