Chapter 24 (1750-1870)
* By 1870 Britain succeeded in the campaign to replace the overseas slave trade from Africa with “legal” trade and had spearheaded new Asian and South Pacific labor migrations into a rejuvenated string of tropical colonies.
* During the Sokoto Caliphate (1809-1906) slavery increased greatly in Sokoto and in other Muslim states, because during theSokoto Caliphate, the jihads were also taken place and anyone during this time who resisted the expansion of Muslim rule were enslaved, killed or forced to convert.
* Slaves were to raise food; this made women to be in complete isolation in their homes as practiced in the Muslim religion.
* Muhammad Ali’s reform changed Egyptian landholding, increased the agricultural production, andcreated a modern administration and army.
* Egyptians were replacing most foreign experts and the beginning program of industrialization was providing the country with its own textiles, paper, armaments, and military uniforms. The demands on poor families for labor and military were troublesome.
* The Ethiopian ruler Emperor Tewodros encouraged the manufacture of weapons locally. With the help ofthe Protestant missionaries his craftsmen constructed a giant cannon. This process of modernization was continued by more Ethiopian emperors.
* After the Abolition of slave trade in 1867, the most successful of the new exports from the West Africa was palm oil, a vegetable oil used by British manufacturers for soap, candles and lubricants.
* In the heartland forests men climbed oil palmsand cut down large palm-nut clusters, which women pounded to extract the oil. Coastal traders bought the palm oil at the inland markets and export it to European ships at the coast.
* Because of the oil palm trade, coastal traders became rich, and used their money to buy male slaves to paddle the giant dugout canoes that transported palm oil from inland markets along the delta to the Europeanports. (mid-1830s)
* Emma White a black woman form Kentucky, moved from Liberia to Opobo in 1875, where she was hired to write King Jaja’s commercial correspondence and run a school for his children.
* Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832-1912), born in Danish West Indies immigrated to Liberia in 1851 and became a professor of Greek and Latin at the Liberia College.
* During 1800-1873 Arab andSwahili owners of clove plantations along the coast purchased some 700,000 slaves from eastern Africa to do the labor-intensive work of harvesting this spice.
* In the British reign over India, the British tried to create a powerful and an efficient government. One of their policies was to disarm approximately 2 million warriors who had served India’s many states and turn them into civilian tasks,mostly cultivation.
* Another of their policies was to substitute landowners for India’s complex and overlapping patterns of landholding. This worked in Bengal, because this brought great advantage to large landowners, but in Mysore the peasantry increased.
* While the Elite Indians were pretending to be against the British, they were committing agreements that affected the common people,mostly women of EVERY status and the poor because they had much oppression from the taxes and they received less benefit from the British reforms.
* The British raj created many new jobs as a result of a growth of internal and external trade and the expansion of agricultural production, though competition from cheap cotton goods produced in Britain’s industrial mills caused many Indians out ofthe handicraft textile industry. In the 18th century India was the top exporter of cotton textiles, but in the 19th century India shipped raw cotton fiber to Britain.
* The EIC (East India’s Company) employed 200,000 sepoys and 38,000 British officers in 1857.
* During the second transformation of India after 1857 of industrialization, women found new jobs, though they were paid poorly, on...