Types of calification

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UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA DE CHIHUAHUA
FAC. FILOSOFIAY LETRAS
LIC. LENGUA INGLESA
HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS – Summary
Angélica Torres Chávez

TYPES OF CALIFICATION

There are three types ofclassification within linguistics. Generic classification categorizes languages according to their descent. Languages that developed historically from the same ancestor language are grouped together and aresaid to be generically related. Although generically related languages often share structural characteristics, they do not necessarily bear a close structural resemblance. For example, Latvian andEnglish are generically retated (both are decenced from Endo-European) but their morpholigical structure is quite different.
Linguistics typology classifies languages according to their structuralcharacteristics, without regard for generic relationships. Typological studies also endeavor to identify linguistics universals, that is, structural characteristics that occur in all or most languages.Finally, areal classification identifies characteristics shared by languages that are in geographical contact. Languages in contact often borrow words, sounds, morphemes, and even syntactic patterns fromone an other. As a result, neighboring languages can come to resemble each other, even though they may not be generically releted.

TYPOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

Typological studies group togetherlanguages on the basis of similarities in their syntactic patterns, morphological structure and/or phonological systems. Structural patterns and traits that occur all languages are called absoluteuniversals, while those that simply occur in most languages are known as universal tendencies.
Another way to analyze linguistics universals is through markedness theory. Within this theory, makedtraits are cosidered to be more complex and/or universally rarer than unmarked characteristics.

PHONOLOGY

VOWEL SYSTEMS
The most common vowel system has five phonemes- two high vowels, two mid...
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