(A) Historically regular – because of the dental ( I – VIII )
(I).- A < d > is added, and the vowel of the base changes:
FLEE: to leave somewhere very quickly in order to escape from danger. To run away. Huir de.
Flee [fli:] (formal) Fled [fled] Fled [fled]
Fly [fl] (obsolescent in the sense “run away”, being replaced by expressions such as takeflight)
GAINSAY: to say that something is not true, or to disagree with someone. Formal. Contradecir, negar.
Gainsay [gense] Gainsaid [gensed] Gainsaid [gensed]
* c.f. Have
HEAR: to know that a sound is being made using your ears. Oir.
Hear [h] Heard [h:d] Heard [h:d]
Ø PAY : Pagar.
Pay [pe] Paid [ped] Paid [ped]
SAY: to pronounce a word orsound. Decir.
Say [se] Said [sed] Said [sed]
*Says [sez] c.f. Have.
SELL: to give something to someone in exchange for money. Vender.
Sell [sel] Sold [sld] Sold [sld]
SHOE: Herrar. /Shoe with : Calzarse
Shoe [u:] Shod [d] Shod [d]
TELL: Contar, decir.
Tell [tel] Told [tld] Told [tld]
(II).- A < d > is added, but a consonant of the base is omitted and the vowel of thebase is changed. There is a greater change of the base than in (I) (PPV)
CAN : Poder, saber.
Can [kn] Could [kd]
* The basic form of most verbs can function as: (a) Infinitive, (b) Present indicative with the exception of the 3rd person singular, (c) Imperative, (d) Subjunctive. But the verbs CAN, MAY, MUST, OUGHT, SHALL, WILL can only function as (b) Present... Various expressions areused for the corresponding infinitives: BE ABLE TO, HAVE TO, BE OBLIGED TO, WANT TO, BE UNDER AN OBLIGATION TO, HAVE THE WILL TO.
* The verbs CAN, MAY, MUST, OUGHT, SHALL, WILL do not add a suffix in the 3rd person singular; the same applies to DARE and NEED when followed by an infinitive without to.
* The verbs CAN, MAY, MUST, OUGHT, SHALL, WILL have no Past Participle. For semanticallycorresponding P.P.s various expressions are resorted to, such as: BEEN ABLE TO, BEEN ALLOWED TO, HAD TO, WANTED TO, and the like.
CLOTHE : Vestir/ cubrir, revestir./ Clothe in/with: Vestir de/ cubrir, revestir de.
Clothe [kl] Clothed [kld] Clothed [kld]
Clad [kld] Clad [kld]
* In the sense cover or provide clothes for the verb is regularly inflected. But used as a mannered expressioninstead of dress –i.e. of the appearance of the clothing- it is irregularly inflected: poorly clad. In addition Clad occurs in many combinations, such as snow-clad.
HAVE : Tener, haber.
Have [hv] Had [hd] Had [hd]
* The addition of –s is combined with a sound change in the verbs HAVE, DO, SAY the 3rd person present being HAS [hz], DOES [dz], SAYS [sez].
N.B. GAINSAYS is regular[gensez].
MAKE : Hacer.
Make [mek] Made [med] Made [med]
SHALL : Used to form 1st person in future tense and questions.
Shall [l] Should [d]
* c.f. Can
WILL : Auxiliar para formar el tiempo futuro/ wish (querer).
Will [wl] Would [wd]
* c.f. Can.
WONT : To be wont to do sth : soler hacer algo, acostumbrar a hacer algo.(Be used to). It is in the same group as modals.
Bewont [wnt]/[wnt] Was/Were wont Been wont
* Wonted [wntd] adj. : acostumbrado.
(III).- A < t > is added after nasal or liquid [l,r]. These verbs can have the < t > or be completely regular.
BURN : Quemar/ estar deseando hacer algo.
Burn [b:n] Burnt [b:nt] Burnt [b:nt]
* The regular preterite is common in the sense longed to (estar deseando hacer algo) : She burnedto ask where the boy lived. (In American English this verb is usually regularly inflected.). c.f. Dream.
DWELL: Morar, vivir./ Dwell on/upon: dar vueltas a (think about), hacer hincapié en.
Dwell [dwel] Dwelt [dwelt] Dwelt [dwelt]
Learn [l:n] Learnt [l:nt] Learnt [l:nt]
Learned [l:nd] Learned [l:nd]
* Learned : Adjective (person) docto, erudito.