Chapter 1 Assignment – 6.5 Points
The Process of Science
1. Imagine that you read a study of the effects of exercise on the prevalence of heart disease in women ages 35 to 65. Although you believe the experiment was carried out in an appropriate manner, you still do not believe the results. You decide to conduct your own study to see for yourself. To determine if the resultsof the first study are valid, would you want to do everything the same way as the first study or would you change several of the variables, such as studying men, or looking at different age groups? Explain your choice, and explain the consequences of the other choice.
As, I think the experiment is properly managed, but I believe that would conduct a new study of the exact way the previousone, without changing any variable. Thus, I make sure that the results do not change, if applicable, and order to compare with more exactitude.
2. Researchers ran three experiments using the following populations:
A. 250 non-smoking men ages 18 to 25
B. 500 smoking and non-smoking men and women ages 20 to 55
C. 300 smoking women ages 45 to 60
Would youexpect the results of these three experiments to be the same? Explain.
They aren't the same results, since they have different characteristics as non-smoking and smoking. Another important parameter is different ages.
3. Why can't science answer questions about the existence of a supernatural being?
The science must buy the hypothesis. Supernatural is not way to test throughexperiments, it is something intangible.
4. A scientific hypothesis must have two very important features. What are they? Why are they important?
A scientific hypothesis must always have two important features: testability and falsifiability.
They allow us to distinguish what is and is not science. The testability allows us to ensure it supports or denied to determine what issearchable or not. On the other hand, falsifiable gives security by discarding, usually the hypothesis can’t explain through the observation.
5. To test the effectiveness of a new drug designed to improve concentration in children with hyperactivity disorder, a researcher divided 100 children with hyperactivity disorder into two groups of 50 children each. First, both groups received atest to determine the length of time they could study a word list before their attention wandered. Then, group 1 received the new drug while group 2 received a sugar pill. One hour later, both groups took the concentration test again.
A. Which group is the experimental group and which is the control group?
Experimental group – Group 1 received the new drug.Control Group – Group 2 received a sugar pill.
B. Why did group 2 receive a sugar pill instead of simply not taking anything at all?
They get a sugar pill, to make them believe that they are taking the same drug. In this way avoid involuntary manipulation of the results. This is called placebo, a fake treatment.
C. What is the independent variable in this study?The independent variable is a new drug.
What is the dependent variable in this study?
The dependent variable is to improve concentration in children with hyperactivity disorder.
6. You are tasked with testing the following hypothesis: Left-handed people have better hand-eye coordination than right-handed people. Based on a review of literature, you have readthat one common test of hand-eye coordination is measuring the percentage of times that someone can drop a coin into a small container from a height of 3 feet. To perform this experiment, you have a group of 25 left-handed males, 25 right-handed males, 25 left-handed females, and 25 right-handed females. Design an experiment to test your hypothesis and be sure to define your independent and...
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