The university is generally regarded as an institution which originates in the medieval Christian world. Prior to their formal establishment, many medieval universities were run for hundreds of yearsas Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6thcentury AD. The University of Salerno alongside the University of Constantinople in the 9th century, Preslav Literary School and Ohrid Literary School in the Bulgarian Empire, also established in the 9thcentury AD, were the first institutions of higher education in Medieval Europe.
The first degree-granting university in Europe, and the world, was the University of Bologna, established in 1088. Withthe increasing growth and urbanization of European society during the 12th and 13th centuries, a demand grew for professional clergy. Before the 12th century, the intellectual life of Western Europehad been largely relegated to monasteries, which were mostly concerned with the performing liturgy and prayer. Learning became essential to advancing in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and teachers alsogained prestige. However, demand quickly outstripped the capacity of cathedral schools, each of which was essentially run by one teacher. In addition, tensions rose between the students of cathedralschools and burghers in smaller towns. As a result cathedral schools migrated to large cities, like Paris and Bologna.
The first universities in Europe University of Bologna, University of Paris, andUniversity of Coimbra began as private corporations of teachers and their pupils. Soon they realized they need protection against local city authorities. They petitioned secular power for privilegesand this became a model. Emperor Frederick I in Authentica Habita gave the first privileges to students in Bologna. Another step was when Pope Alexander III in 1179 "forbidding masters of the church...
Leer documento completo
Regístrate para leer el documento completo.