The International court of justice also known as the World Court is the primary judicial organ of United Nations. It is based in the peace palace in The Hague, Netherland, of all of the six principle organs of the United Nations; it is the only one that is not located in New York, or America as a whole. It was established in June 1945 by the charter of the United Nations and started work inApril of 1946 as the successor to the permanent of international justice. English and French are the two official languages. The court was created as a conclusion of a long development of methods for the pacific settlement of international disputes. The United Nations article 33 lists methods for the pacific settlement of disputes between the states such as; negotiation, enquiry, mediation,conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, and resort to regional agencies or arrangements; as well good offices. Among these methods, certain involve appealing to third parties.
The main function of the court to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nationsorgans and specialized agencies. It is composed of 15 judges that are elected to 9 years terms by the United Nations, the general assembly, and the United Nations Security Council from a list nominated by the national groups in the permanent court of Arbitration. The International Court of Justice acts as a world court. The Court has a dual jurisdiction : it decides, in accordance withinternational law, disputes of a legal nature that are submitted to it by States (jurisdiction in contentious cases); it gives advisory opinions on legal questions at the request of the organs of the United Nations or specialized agencies authorized to make such a request (advisory jurisdiction).
The Outbreak of war in September 1939 had serious consequences for the Permanent Court ofInternational Justice; after the failure of the Permanent Court of International Justice, in 1942 the US secretary of state and the and the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom acknowledged themselves in support of the establishment, or re-establishment of an international court after the war that had taken place in September of 1939and the inter-American Judicial Committee recommended the extension of thePermanent Court of International Justice's jurisdiction. In 1943 the United State Secretary of State and United Kingdom’ s Foreign Secretary came up with the proposal of inviting a number of experts to London to compose an informal Inter-allied Committee to examine the matter. The Declaration led to exchange between Four Powers at Dumbarton Oaks April 1945, meeting in Washington to furthercompletion of the International Court of Justice decision to create new court. With that being done the committee under the chairmanship of Sir William Malkin of the United Kingdom, held 19 meetings, in which were attended by jurists from 11 countries. In the report that was published on February 10 of 1944 it recommended the; that the Statute of any new international court should be based on that ofthe Permanent Court of International Justice;
* That advisory jurisdiction should be retained in the case of the new Court;
* That acceptance of the jurisdiction of the new Court should not be compulsory;
* That the Court should have no jurisdiction to deal with essentially political matters.
A conference took place on October 30, 1943 between China and the than USSR, TheUnited Kingdom, and the United States of America, there a joint declaration was issued distinguishing the necessity "of establishment at the earliest practicable date a general international organization, based upon the principles of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving States, and open to membership by all such States, large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and...
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