Renaissance means rebirth, it was named such because it was a time where the European civilizations (especially the Italians) looked at all the great things the Romans and Greeks had achieved artistically and architecturally.
Introduction: in the mid- 14 century the countries in Europe had gone through a very difficulttime because of the black death. In 15 centuria changes started in Italy, because Italy was very different from the rest of Europe.
Divided Italy: Italy was made up of small states. Some city-states were governed by the people, others by a powerful lord.
The growing wealth of Italy: Italy was very well geogrphically placed to act as the commercial centre of Europe. This made Europe to grow inwealth.
Noble Patrons and Rulers: In some cities merchants became so important they took over their city. They employed the best artists they cold and let this men do what they wanted and art began to change and develop.
The Classical Period: The Greeks work together in towns and they created Works of art. Then the Romans ruled all Europe and started to build impressive public buildings all overEurope. These buildings survive into the 15 century. Italians started to take interest and their ideas on art and architecture were influenced by art and architecture from the Classical Period.
The fall of Constantinople: In 1453 Constantinople was captured by the Turks. Greek scholars, lived in Constantinople and carried on the tradición and learning of the Greek and Roman civilizations. Italiansscholars began to the interest in these. They were so interest that they started to look for other ancient manuscripts. These Works encouraged people to think again about long-accepted ideas and beliefs.
The power of the popes: The pope was the head of the catholic church. They sent. Much of their time increasing their own and their families´ weath. This was important for art and society in twoways:
1)People started to respect the pope less and so the popes became less powerful.
2)Some popes were so ambitious that they employed all the best artists to beautify the city of Rome.
For Europeans, religion and the church were the most importantthings in their lives. However, there were often disputes whithin the church about the best way to serve and worship god. This disputes became so bitter that the church split into to groups: Protestants and Catholics. We call this split The Reformation.
The catholic church in crisis
God and the church were the most important things in the Europeans lives. The Pope was the head of the church, and theEmperor was the protector of church. The ruler defended the people from criminals and enemies. People had to pay taxes to the Pope, the Elector or the Emperor. Everything seemed to be fine. But in 1520, people started criticising the church. Problems with the church did not happened everywhere.
Problems of the church:
-Popes were not concéntrate on boeing good churchmens.
-Bishops and Abbotsbehaved like normal princes instead of churchmen.
-The clergy were not interested in wealth.
-The clergy were not well trained.
-Many clergy got married even tour this broke the law.
-The clergy were not well respected.
The people criticising the church were called reformers, because they wanted to reform the church. For example:
1)John Wyclif translated the bible intoEnglish from latin, but as this was forbidden, he was condemned.
2)Jan Hus also preached the bible into his own language and not in latin, but he was burned.
Some reformers thought that the church could reform itself.
Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation
In about 1500, Europe was catholic. Martin Luther and his followers led protest against the catholic church in the early 1500s. Luther...
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