Accountancy (profession) or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authoritiesand other decision makers make resource allocation decisions. Financial accounting is one branch of accounting and historically has involved processes by which financial information about a businessis recorded, classified, summarized, interpreted, and communicated.
Auditing, a related but separate discipline, has two sub-disciplines: Internal and External auditing. External auditing is theprocess whereby an independent auditor examines an organization's financial statements and accounting records in order to express an opinion — that conveys reasonable but not absolute assurance — as to thetruth and fairness of the statements and the accountant's adherence to Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), in all material respects.
Internal auditing is an examination in whichmanagement, and not the external public, is the main beneficiary. It is carried out usually by auditors employed by the company, but sometimes by external service providers. The internal auditor's role isbroader, and basically depends on what kind of assurance management wants. It usually certifies the efficiency and effectiveness of processes, departments, projects or internal controls. The Instituteof Internal Auditors is generally accepted as the custodian of Internal Auditing best practice.
At the heart of accounting is the measurement of financial transactions which are transfers of legalproperty rights made under contractual relationships. Non-financial transactions are specifically excluded due to conservatism and materiality principles.
Practitioners of accountancy are known asaccountants. There are many professional bodies for accountants throughout the world. Many allow their members to use titles indicating their membership. Examples are Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA...
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