Leishmaniasis Cutanea Canina

Páginas: 17 (4120 palabras) Publicado: 13 de mayo de 2012
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 86(5), 2012, pp. 807–811
Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

An Epidemic Outbreak of Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Caused by Leishmania
braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis
Ivan D. Velez,* Lina M. Carrillo, Liliana Lopez, Erwin Rodrıguez, and Sara M. Robledo
Programfor Study and Control of Tropical Disease – PECET, School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellın, Antioquia, Colombia; School
of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia, Medellın, Antioquia, Colombia; Health Office at the Army, Republic of Colombia

Abstract. The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia’s history occurred during 2005–2009
in soldiers of theColombian Army, with ~40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into
the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially
trained to detect landmines, and therefore,dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of
cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis
and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army aredescribed. A program for
prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed.

tion regarding clinical, parasitological, or immunological
aspects in the infected dogs. On the other hands, despite
the high prevalence of L. braziliensis and L. panamensis in
Colombia, information about the canine CL is poor. In both
Colombia and other American countries cases of canine CL
caused by L.braziliensis but not by L. panamensis have been
Since 2003 human CL has increased in Colombia. From about
10,000 cases reported in 2003, the number of cases in 2010 was
15,000. Thus, Colombia occupies the second place in number
of cases of CL in Latin America after Brazil. Different factors have contributed to the increase in the number of cases in
Colombia. Thus, the appearance of newfoci of transmission is
caused by the colonization of vectors to new geographic areas,
the rural domestic transmission process, and the urbanization
of the disease.15–19 Nevertheless, the main factor that has influenced this outbreak is the high number of military members
who are entering the forest areas because of the armed conflict in the country and in the fight against drugs; therefore,they are the population group with the highest incidence of
the disease.20 The soldiers enter the jungle areas accompanied
by dogs specially trained to detect landmines or illicit crops.
This study aimed to identify and characterize the presence of
CL in dogs belonging to the Colombian Army personnel who
are monitoring the jungle areas of Colombia where no previous studies have been conducted.This work describes the clinical features and the response to treatment with pentavalent
antimonials in 72 dogs with CL in Colombia. A program for
prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed.

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of human beings
and animals caused by protozoan parasites of the genus
Leishmania. The dogs are susceptible to visceral and cutaneousleishmaniasis and the most important reservoirs of Leishmania
infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in
humans.1 Canine VL is a chronic infection that leads animals
to death. This disease is endemic in many countries of Latin
America, the Mediterranean basin, and West Africa,2 where
it constitutes a serious public health and veterinary problem.3
Canine VL has a worse...
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