The Work Of Mendel Applications And Principles
Gregor Mendel, who is known as the "father of modern genetics", was inspired by both his professors at the University of Olomouc, and his colleagues at the monastery, to study variation in plants, and he conducted his study in the monastery's 2 hectares experimental garden, which was originally planted by Napp in 1830.Between 1856and 1863 Mendel cultivated and tested some 29,000 pea plants. This study showed that one in four pea plants had purebred recessive alleles, two out of four were hybrid and one out of four were purebred dominant. His experiments led him to make two generalizations, the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment, which later became known as Mendel's Laws of Inheritance
ObjectiveWith this work, we want to let know all the people who was Gregor Mendel and what did he do, because we consider especially important that everyone has an idea about who he was. Genetics is an important topic and everyone should have an idea of what it is and his father.
Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He did a number of experiments on inheritance in pea plants. He did not knowabout genes and chromosomes: what he called "factors" we now call genes. Mendel did not know about cell division so he had not seen diagrams or slides of mitosis and meiosis.
| Mendel's First Law is the law of "Segregation of Characteristics." | This says that of a pair of characteristics (e.g. blue and brown eye colour) only one can be represented in a gamete. What he meant was that for anypair of characteristics there is only one gene in a gamete even though there are two genes in ordinary cells. |
| If your eyes are blue, green or grey you have two alleles for blue eyes (bb), then your gametes must have a blue allele (b); if your eyes are brown you might have two brown allele (BB), then your gametes have one allele for brown (B) or you might have one allele of each kind (Bb), inwhich case you make two kinds of gametes some contain the brown allele (B) and some contain the blue allele (b). |
Mendel's Second Law is the law of "Independent Assortment". This says that for two characteristics the genes are inherited independently.
| If you had the genotype AaBb you would make four kinds of gametes: they would contain the combinations of either AB, Ab, aB or ab. || Suppose one of your parents had the genotype AABB then you would have inherited AB from this parent. Suppose also that your other parent had the genotype aabb then you would have inherited ab from this parent. The combinations of AB and ab are parental types. Your genotype is AaBb and some of your children will inherit these parental types either AB or ab from you. However, it is alsopossible for some of your children to inherit new combinations called "re-combinants from you. These are Ab and aB. |
The experiment proved that the characters were inherited independently from one another. The genotypes of the F2 generation occur in a ratio of 9:3:3:1. And this leads us to MENDEL's third law, the principle of independent assortment. It does inevitably cover the case that newcombinations of genes, that were not existing before can arise. In MENDEL's experiment these are the combinations: round seeds/green cotyledons and edgy seeds/yellow cotyledons.
If just one character is studied, then it is talked of a monohybrid crossing. If further characteristics are also regarded, then the crossing is called dihybrid, trihybrid,...polyhybrid.
The work of mendel
Mendeldemonstrated that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance. Although the significance of Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century, the independent rediscovery of these laws formed the foundation of the modern science of genetics.
Mendel learned from this that there are two kinds of...
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