Comparison of salivary IgA levels in caries free and caries active children
D. Doifode1 S.G. Damle2
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
1. D. Doifode Reader Dept of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry V. S.P. M’s Dental College and Research Center Hingana, Nagpur440017 2. S.G. Damle Ex Professor and Head Dept of Pediatric Dentistry Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai
Purpose: The aimof the study was to compare the salivary IgA levels and dental caries status in caries active and caries free children. Methods: Thirty children in the age group of 8-10 years were selected and divided into two groups, Group I caries free (dfs=0) and Group II caries active (dfs>10). Whole salivary IgA level was estimated using radial immunodiffusion method. Results: Whole salivary IgA levels weresignificantly higher in caries free children as compared to caries active children. Conclusions: Naturally occurring salivary IgA antibodies can play an important role in immunological control of dental caries.
Key Words: Salivary IgA, dental caries, mutans streptococci
Mutans streptococci has been identified as the major etiological factor of dentalcaries 1,2 in humans . Since the infective nature of dental caries has been established in both laboratory animals and humans, one may rationalize that some form of host immunity regulates caries activity. Several laboratory studies have identified S. mutans virulence 1,4 properties and factors . Among these are the ability of the bacterium to multiply, adhere to smooth surfaces and produceorganic acids resulting in dental caries. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) has been shown to be the predominant immunoglobulin found in human secretions and at mucosal surfaces. Naturally occurring sIgA antibodies to many different antigens (oral, ocular and respiratory microorganisms) are present in mucosal fluid and may serve as major immunological 5,6 defense against infection . Secretory IgA hasseveral effector functions i.e. agglutination, precipitation, opsonization, suppression of inflammation, plasmid 1 curing, inhibition of colonization and neutralization of toxins, viruses and enzymes . Antibodies indigenous to oral microorganisms are mostly demonstrated in saliva and it has been suggested that this may lead to a local retrograde stimulation of the minor 6,7 salivary glands.Secretory IgA is the primary immunoglobulin bathing mucosal surfaces and is the first line of defense. Therefore the study was designed and carried out in the department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai in collaboration with Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Seth G.S. Medical College, Mumbai to compare the salivary IgA levels in caries free and cariesactive children in the age group of 8 to 10 years and also to quantify mutans streptococci count in caries free and caries active children.
Dept of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry V. S.P. M’s Dental College and Research Center Hingana, Nagpur 440017 Email:
IJCDS • FEBRUARY, 2011 • 2(1) © 2011
Int. Journal of Clinical Dental Science
10Materials and Method: Total 30 municipal school children in the age group of 8 to 10 years were randomly selected for the study. They were divided into two groups. Group I comprises of caries free children with dfs – 0 and Group II comprises of caries active children with dfs 10. Using WHO 1997 criteria assessed their dental caries status. The children with physical limitations, medicallycompromised children and having history of antibiotics intake 6 months prior to the study were excluded from the study. The informed consent was obtained from the parents. Saliva collection: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in sterile containers and processed immediately. Determination of Salivary IgA Level: The salivary IgA levels were determined by radial immunodiffusion method using...
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