Spatial sound

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Spatial Audio

Titles in the series
Acoustics and Psychoacoustics, 2nd edition (with accompanying website: David M. Howard and James Angus The Audio Workstation Handbook Francis Rumsey Composing Music with Computers (with CD-ROM) Eduardo Reck Miranda Computer Sound Synthesis for the Electronic Musician (with CD-ROM) Eduardo Reck MirandaDigital Audio CD and Resource Pack Markus Erne (Digital Audio CD also available separately) Network Technology for Digital Audio Andy Bailey Digital Sound Processing for Music and Multimedia (with accompanying website: Ross Kirk and Andy Hunt MIDI Systems and Control, 2nd edition Francis Rumsey Sound and Recording: An introduction, 3rd edition FrancisRumsey and Tim McCormick Sound Synthesis and Sampling Martin Russ Sound Synthesis and Sampling CD-ROM Martin Russ Spatial Audio Francis Rumsey

Spatial Audio

Francis Rumsey

Focal Press

Focal Press An imprint of Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041 A divisionof Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group First published 2001 © Francis Rumsey 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the writtenpermission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 0LP. Applications for the copyright holder’s written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers BritishLibrary Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 0 240 51623 0

For information on all Focal Press publications visit our website at Composition by Scribe Design, Gillingham, Kent, UKPrinted and bound in Great Britain

Series introduction Preface 1 Introduction to spatial audio 1.1 The spatial dimension in natural sound 1.2 Sound sources in space 1.3 Introduction to the spatial dimension in reproduced sound 1.4 From mono to surround sound and 3D audio – a brief resumé 1.5 Applications of spatial audio Spatial audio psychoacoustics 2.1 Sound source localisation 2.2Distance and depth perception 2.3 Apparent source width 2.4 Envelopment and spaciousness 2.5 Naturalness 2.6 Some subjective experiments involving spatial attributes of reproduced sound 2.7 Cognitive issues in sound space perception 2.8 The source–receiver signal chain Two-channel stereo and binaural audio 3.1 Two-channel (2-0) stereo 3.2 Binaural sound and 3D audio systems Multichannel stereo andsurround sound systems 4.1 Three-channel (3-0) stereo vii ix 1 1 2 7 10 18 21 21 35 36 37 39 40 42 46 52 52 64 82 82





4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5

Four-channel surround (3-1 stereo) 5.1-channel surround (3-2 stereo) Other multichannel configurations Surround sound systems Matrixed surround sound systems Digital surround sound formats Ambisonics

84 86 94 96 96102 111

Spatial sound monitoring 119 5.1 Introduction to listening room acoustics 119 5.2 International guidelines for surround sound room acoustics 128 5.3 Loudspeakers for surround sound: placement and directivity 136 5.4 Monitor level alignment 143 5.5 Virtual control room acoustics and monitors 149 Two- and three-channel recording techniques 6.1 Science versus aesthetics in spatial...
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