This chapter contains the engineering properties and related characteristics of titanium and titanium alloys used in aircraft and missile structural applications.
General comments on engineering properties and the considerations relating to alloy selection are presented in Section 5.1. Mechanical- and physical-property data and characteristics pertinentto specific alloy groups or individual alloys are reported in Sections 5.2 through 5.5.
Titanium is a relatively lightweight, corrosion-resistant structural material that can be strengthened greatly through alloying and, in some of its alloys, by heat treatment. Among its advantages for specific applications are: good strength-to-weight ratio, low density, low coefficient of thermal expansion,good corrosion resistance, good oxidation resistance at intermediate temperatures, good toughness, and low heattreating temperature during hardening, and others.
5.1.1 TITANIUM INDEX — The coverage of titanium and its alloys in this chapter has been divided into four sections for systematic presentation. The system takes into account unalloyed titanium and three groups of alloys based onmetallurgical differences which in turn result in differences in fabrication and property characteristics. The sections and the individual alloys covered under each are shown in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1. Titanium Alloys Index
5.1.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES — The material properties of titanium and its alloys are determined mainly by their alloy content and heat treatment, both of which are influential indetermining the allotropic forms in which this material will be bound. Under equilibrium conditions, pure titanium has an “alpha” structure up to 1620..F, above which it transforms to a “beta” structure. The inherent properties of these two structures are quite different. Through alloying and heat treatment, one or the other or a combination of these two structures can be made to exist at servicetemperatures, and the properties of the material vary accordingly. References 5.1.2(a) and (b) provide general discussion of titanium microstructures and associated metallography.
Titanium and titanium alloys of the alpha and alpha-beta type exhibit crystallographic textures in sheet form in which certain crystallographic planes or directions are closely aligned with the direction of priorworking. The presence of textures in these materials lead to anisotropy with respect to many mechanical and physical properties. Poisson’s ratio and Young’s modulus are among those properties strongly affected by texture. Wide variations experienced in these properties both within and between sheets of titanium alloys have been qualitatively related to variations of texture. In general, the degree oftexturing, and hence the variation of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, that is developed for alpha-beta alloys tends to be less than that developed in all alpha titanium alloys. Rolling temperature has a pronounced effect on the texturing of titanium alloys which may not in general be affected by subsequent thermal treatments. The degree of applicability of the effect of textural variationsdiscussed above on the mechanical properties of products other than sheet is unknown at present. The values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio listed in this document represent the usual values obtained on products resulting from standard mill practices. References 5.1.2(c) and (d) provide further information on texturing in titanium alloys.
220.127.116.11 Mechanical Properties
18.104.22.168.1 FractureToughness — The fracture toughness of titanium alloys is greatly influenced by such factors as chemistry variations, heat treatment, microstructure, and product thickness, as well as yield strength. For fracture critical applications, these factors should be closely controlled. Typical values of plane-strain fracture toughness for titanium alloys are presented in Table 22.214.171.124.1. Minimum,...
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