Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms and are bonded exclusively by single bonds without any cycles. Alkanesbelong to a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ by a constant relative molecular mass of 14.
Each carbon atom must have 4 bonds (either C-H or C-C bonds), and each hydrogenatom must be joined to a carbon atom (H-C bonds). A series of linked carbon atoms is known as the carbon skeleton or carbon backbone. In general, the number of carbon atoms is often used to define thesize of the alkane.
Hydrocarbon: Compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen.
Saturated Hydrocarbons: Compound with only single bonds.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Compounds with AT LEAST onedouble or triple bonds.
Alkane: Compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen and single bonds
Acyclic Alkanes: Compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen in a 'chain- like' conformationNomenclature:
⇒ parent: longest alkyl chain of the molecules
→ if two possible chains have the same # of carbons, the one
With the more branch point’s wins ⇒ suffix: If only alkane, ending is -ane; ifmolecule has functional groups, they determine the suffix.
In organic chemistry, an alkene, olefin, or olefine is an unsaturated chemical compound containing at least one carbon-to-carbondouble bond. The simplest acyclic alkenes, with only one double bond and no other functional groups, form an homologous series of hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n
Alkene: Hydrocarbon with atleast one carbon-carbon double bond (olefins)
Like single covalent bonds, double bonds can be described in terms of overlapping atomic orbitals, except that, unlike a single bond (which consists of asingle sigma bond), a carbon-carbon double bond consists of one sigma bond and one pi bond. This double bond is stronger than a single covalent bond.
ALKENE NAMES Root names give the...