Subject: answers to questionswho/what
Predicate: structure that tells me what the subject is doing.
(All predicates are verbal, but they need to be conjugated)
(The verb is a finite because I can state the verb)
Direct Object : [D.O.] it can be turned into the passive; it completes the combiidea of the verb, but doesnot refer to it.
To recognize a D.O., we answer to the questions WHO/ WHAT.
Indirect Object: [I.O.] to/for whom the action is performed; it’s always a person or animate noun. It presupposes a D.O.; so every time we have an I.O. we must have a D.O.
Subjective Complement: [SC] It refers to both the verb and the noun and it can’t be turnedinto the passive. Verb is always intransitive.
Objective Complement: [O.C.] it completes the idea of the O.D., so if I don’t have a D.O., I don’t have an O.C.; it goes after it.
*Means/Instrument [With what?]
*Purpose [What for?]
*Company [who with?]*Negation [no; not]
*Quantity [how much/many?]
*Condition [conditional sentences]
*Affirmation [also, too]
*Source/Origin [wines come from France]
*Topic/Theme [about what?]
*Result/Effect [she was so nice that she had many friends]
Adverbial Complement: Something obvious within the verb used.
He went home.
Sentence: combination of a subject andpredicate that makes sense, has coherence, cohesion and is ended in a stop. (Amorphous sentences don’t have subject nor predicate)
2) Semantic classification: can be expressed also in amorphous sentences.
a) When the sentence expresses a fact, it is declarative.
b) When it expresses an order, or a command, it is imperative. In this sentences, the subject is tacit (only case) and is always“you”
c) Interrogative sentences [yes- no; WH]
d) When they express feelings or emotions, the sentence is exclamatory.
*Simple Sentence: one main clause. (I’m happy)
*Compound Sentence: two or more clauses in coordination. (They were tired and we were not)
*Complex Sentence: one main clause and, at least, one subordinate clause.
*Compound-complex Sentences: two ormore main clauses and at least one subordinate.
If it rains, I won’t go so don’t wait for me.
Conjunction: an element that links structures.
Coordinator: an element that joins structures of the same grammatical value. (calm and peaceful)
Subordinator: element that joins structures of different grammatical value. (as soon as I could)
Cumulative: gives the idea ofaddition. (CCC) and, as well as, no less than, besides.
Alternative: expresses the idea of choice, joins verb or clauses. (AltCC) or, or else, nor.
Adversative: gives the idea of opposition. (AdvCC) but, yet, whereas.
Illative: gives the idea of consequence. (ICC) so, then, therefore, so then.
Coordinating Conjunctions can also be SPLIT (when the predicate is discontinuous)
CumulativeCorrelative Coordinating Conjunction: (CCCC) gives the idea of addition. Both…and.
Not only… but also.
Alternative Correlative Coordinating Conjunction: (ACCC) gives the idea of choice.
Function Words: a word with important grammatical value, but not semantically.
Content Word: a word with important semantical value, but not grammatical.
Basic Patterns:1) S+VICP+ADV ADJ: the teacher is talking loudly.
2) S+VTCP+DO+ADV ADJ: the girl made that yesterday.
3) S+VIIP+SC+ADV ADJ: I am sad now.
4) S+VTCP+DO+IO: He bought flowers for Mary.
5) S+VTIP+DO+OC: She called him John.
6) S+VICP+ADV COM.: She went home.
Noun Phrase: a structure formed by one or more words whose head is a noun.
Adjective: functions: _modifier of a noun...
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