• It is a style of animation with its origins in Japan, characterized by colorful graphics and often featuring themes intended for an adult audience.
• Became known outside Japan in the 1980s.
• Both hand-drawn and computer-animated anime exist. It is used in television series, films, video, video games, commercials, and internet-basedreleases.
• In the process of adaptation from manga to anime, censorship is usually present.
Opening and ending:
• Most of original openings not only present the characters but also reflect the main characteristics of the story.
• Most of endings show a simple image or animation, generally a long or an extreme long shot, with little movement. It usually reflects the maincharacter personal story or feelings.
• Anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques also pioneered in France, Germany, the United States, and Russia.
• The oldest known anime in existence first screened in 1917 – a two-minute clip of a samurai trying to test a new sword on his target, only to suffer defeat.• By the 1930s animation became an alternative format of storytelling to the live-action industry in Japan.
• Other creators, such as Kenzō Masaoka and Mitsuyo Seo, nonetheless made great strides in animation technique, especially with increasing help from a government using animation in education and propaganda.
• The first speaking anime was Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka, producedby Masaoka in 1933.
• The success of The Walt Disney Company's 1937 feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs influenced Japanese animators.
• The first feature length animated film was Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors directed by Seo in 1945 with sponsorship by the Imperial Japanese Navy.
• In the 1960s, manga artist and animator Osamu Tezuka adapted and simplified many Disneyanimation-techniques to reduce costs and to limit the number of frames in productions.
• The work of Osamu Tezuka drew particular attention: he has been called a "legend" and the "God of manga".
• In the 1980s, anime became more accepted in the mainstream in Japan (although less than manga), and experienced a boom in production.
• Anime styleconsists on exaggerated physical features such as large eyes, big hair and elongated limbs as well as dramatically shaped speech bubbles, speed lines and onomatopoeic, exclamatory typography.
• The influences of Japanese calligraphy and Japanese painting also characterize linear qualities of the anime style. The round ink brush traditionally used for writing kanji and for painting produces a strokeof widely varying thickness.
• Anime also tends to borrow many elements from manga, including text in the background and panel layouts. For example, an opening may employ manga panels to tell the story, or to dramatize a point for humorous effect.
• Basic character designs use techniques implemented in cartoon design. Among these techniques include the use of reference sketches to ensurecharacter proportionality and multiple angle designs.
• Variations to proportion can be modified by the artist. Super-deformed characters feature a non-proportionally small body compared to the head. Sometimes specific body parts, like legs, are shortened or elongated for added emphasis. Most super deformed characters are two to four heads tall. Some anime works like Crayon Shin-chancompletely disregard these proportions, such that they resemble Western cartoons. For exaggeration, certain body features are increased in proportion. Comedic effects often utilize these variations.
• Many anime and manga characters feature large eyes. Osamu Tezuka, who is believed to have been the first to use this technique, was inspired by the exaggerated features of American cartoon characters...