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  • Publicado : 28 de agosto de 2012
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The face is a central sense organ complex, normally on the ventral surface of the head for animals that have one. It can, depending on the definition in the human case, include the hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyelashes, eyes, nose, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, philtrum, temple, teeth, skin, and chin.[1] The face has uses of expression, appearance, and identity amongst others. It also has differentsenses like olfaction, taste, hearing, and vision.[2]





Contents
[hide] 1 Individuality and recognition
2 Metaphor
3 Plastic surgery
4 Caricatures
5 Perception and recognition of faces
6 Emotion
7 Biological perspective
8 See also
9 References


[edit] Individuality and recognition

The face is the feature which best distinguishes a person. There are "special"regions of the human brain, such as the fusiform face area (FFA), which when damaged prevent the recognition of the faces of even intimate family members. The pattern of specific organs such as the eyes or parts thereof are used in biometric identification to uniquely identify individuals.

[edit] Metaphor

By extension, anything which is the forward or world facing part of a system which hasinternal structure is considered its "face", like the façade of a building. For example a public relations or press officer might be called the "face" of the organization he or she represents. "Face" is also used metaphorically in a sociological context to refer to reputation or standing in society, particularly Chinese society, and is spoken of as a resource which can be won or lost. Because ofthe association with individuality, the anonymous person is sometimes referred to as "faceless".

[edit] Plastic surgery

Cosmetic surgery can be used to alter the appearance of the facial features.[3] Plastic surgery may also be used in cases of facial trauma, injury to the face. Severely disfigured individuals have recently received full face transplants and partial transplants of skin andmuscle tissue.





Various face profiles as caricatures
[edit] Caricatures

Caricatures often exaggerate facial features to make a face more easily recognised in association with a pronounced portion of the face of the individual in question—for example, a caricature of Osama bin Laden might focus on his facial hair and nose; a caricature of George W. Bush might enlarge his ears to thesize of an elephant's; a caricature of Jay Leno may pronounce his head and chin; and a caricature of Mick Jagger might enlarge his lips. Exaggeration of memorable features helps people to recognise others when presented in a caricature form.[4]

[edit] Perception and recognition of faces

Gestalt psychologists theorise that a face is not merely a set of facial features but is rathersomething meaningful in its form. This is consistent with the Gestalt theory that an image is seen in its entirety, not by its individual parts. According to Gary L. Allen, people adapted to respond more to faces during evolution as the natural result of being a social species. Allen suggests that the purpose of recognizing faces has its roots in the "parent-infant attraction, a quick and low-effortmeans by which parents and infants form an internal representation of each other, reducing the likelihood that the parent will abandon his or her offspring because of recognition failure".[5] Allen's work takes a psychological perspective that combines evolutionary theories with Gestalt psychology.

[edit] Emotion





a face in concrete
Faces are essential to expressing emotion,consciously or unconsciously. A frown denotes disapproval; a smile usually means someone is pleased. Being able to read emotion in another's face is "the fundamental basis for empathy and the ability to interpret a person’s reactions and predict the probability of ensuing behaviors". One study used the Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test[6] to attempt to determine how to measure emotion. This research...
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