Canada is a country occupying most of northern North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west and northward into the Arctic Ocean. It is the world's second largest country by total area and shares the world's longest common border with the United States to the south and northwest. The land occupied by Canada was inhabited for millennia byvarious groups of aboriginal people. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled along, the Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763 after the Seven Years' War. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of fourprovinces. This began an accretion of additional provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom, highlighted by the Statute of Westminster in 1931 and culminating in the Canada Act in 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
The name Canada comes from a St. Lawrence Iroquoian word, kanata, meaning "village"or "settlement". In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier towards the village of Stadacona.
From the early 17th century onwards, that part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River and the northern shores of the Great Lakes was named Canada, an area that was later split into two Britishcolonies, Upper Canada and Lower Canada, until their re-unification as the Province of Canada in 1841.
According to the data, most of legends and stories passed from generation to generation, usually derived from an oral tradition, the first inhabitants of the territory now known as Canada, were from Iceland and Greenland, and arrived there because of unexpected detours, which were mostlysailors. It is thought that the first arrivals was the Labrador Peninsula.
Realizing the existence of new lands, especially the shortage of firewood in Greenland, the Scandinavian sailors, who were known as Vikings, began to carry out deep and continuous, and began to populate the territory.
Since that time, began to establish a colony from Greenland, however, it is thought that this colony haddisappeared somewhere between the XV and XVI and the Nordic sailing to Canada.
Around 1000 D. e. C the first person of European origin who arrived in the Canadian was Leif Ericcson. Later, in 1947 an Italian named John Cabot sailed eastward from Bristol, England, in an attempt to find new trade routes in the East, commanded by King Henry VII of England. That trip led to the rediscovery of theeastern coast of Canada.
Like Columbus, Cabot believed to have discovered a new route to Asia, and was and began to seek ways to continue to explore these new lands, but this happened not only in Canada but in other lands as the United States and the rest of the Americas, which drew attention to the territory from European sailors, especially British, Spanish and Portuguese.
Eventually, Francesent more exploration missions to the land, to continue with their desire to trade or exploitation of subjects. This is how the French began to establish colonies in Canada, like the British. However, climatic conditions not conducive to the complete settlement on that land, so many French explorers and settlers died, and was at this time when France decided to abandon the settlement project forabout sixty years.
Already in the sixteenth century, large European fleets began to make annual trips to Canada, to the exploitation of fur. During that period, troilus Mesgouez of a Marquis of France a monopoly of the fur trade and later a colony in the Sable Island. These were among the first attempts by France to begin to establish colonies in Canada. When a monopoly on fur changed hands,...