CHEMISTRY OF SOLUTIONS
A solution is a mixture in which one substance called the solute is uniformly dispersed in another substance called the solvent. Because the solute and thesolvent do not react with each other, they can be mixed in varying proportions .
Solutes and solvents may be solids, liquids, or gases. The solution that forms has the same physical state as thesolvent.
Water is the most important solvent for many solutions.
The term solubility is used to describe the amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent. Many factors,such as the type of solute, the type of solvent, and temperature affect a solute’s solubility. Solubility, usually expressed in grams of solute in 100 grams of solvent, is the maximum amount ofsolute that can be dissolved at a certain temperature.
If the solute readily dissolves when added to the solvent, the solution does not contain the maximum amount of solute. We call the solution anunsaturated solution.
When a solution contains all the solute that can dissolve, it is a saturated solution.
Effect of Temperature on Solubility
In water, most common solids are more soluble asthe temperature increases.
The solubility of a gas in water decreases as the temperature increases. At higher temperatures, more gas molecules have the energy to escape from the solution.
Henry’s law states that the solubility of gas in a liquid is directly related to the pressure of that gas above the liquid.
Soluble and Insoluble Salts
Many ionic compounds(salts) aresoluble in water but some do not separate into ions in water. They are insoluble salts that remain as solids even in contact with water. There is a table that can help us know which salts are soluble andwhich are not. However, we can mention that salts that are soluble in water typically contain at least one of the following ions: Li+, Na+ ,K+, NH4+, NO3-, or C2H3O2-. Most salts containing Cl-...
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