The informed approaches (Page 2 of 10)
Narrator: Hi, are you ready to begin Session B? In this session, we're going to talk about communicative-based approaches. When you finish this session, you will be able to structure task-based instruction, structure content-based instruction, and structure learner-centered instruction.
H. Douglas Brown: Sincethe early 1990s, many teachers have moved away from using one set teaching method with one fixed set of classroom practices. Instead, they've looked at ways to use a range of approaches that consider the teacher, students, goals, learning setting, and environment. We call these informed approaches. They are based on the belief that communication opportunities in and out of class can greatly aidsecond language acquisition. Informed approaches match student needs more closely because they take real-life student goals into consideration and target real-life language skills. All of the informed approaches use student interaction as the basis for classroom language activities. Students interact with one another and with the teacher. They talk to each other, they ask each other questions if theydidn't understand something, ask follow-up questions, repeat important information, and help each other understand tasks and activities by explaining things to each other. This is what people do in real life outside the classroom: they negotiate meaning. Task and content-based instruction encourage negotiating meaning as a way to better build language skills.
languagelearning approaches based on the belief that all communication supports second language acquisition
H. Douglas Brown: Now let's talk a little about task-based instruction. Task-based instruction is goal-oriented. Students are given specific tasks to help them learn English. But, hopefully, they also learn a skill that they may need in other classes or in their lives. The task types will varydepending on the needs of the students, the curriculum, and the particular program.task-based instruction an approach in which the focus is on the completion of meaningful tasks rather than on the languageFor example, learning how to speak at a job interview is a possible task for students in adult English classes. Students in school and university programs might get a task to outline a solution to aproblem in their school or community, such as expanding recycling efforts.Here are some important guidelines for task-based instruction: First, specific learning tasks should be used, such as a job interview role-play or a telephone conversation role-play. Target language items need to be provided for students to complete the task, such as language for question formation, vocabulary for theinterview, or model conversations. Make sure that you use particular teaching techniques, such as role-play, problem-solving, or information gap, and remember that language tasks have real-life purposes beyond the classroom. Keep those purposes in mind as you teach. Here are some easy steps to put task-based instruction into action:
The vocabulary and grammar should be pre-taught; the teacher shouldmodel the role-play or task; and the teacher should help set up the learner-centered task. Task-based instruction, continued (Page 4 of 10) |
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| | | You can base a task on many real-life situations. Here are some examples. * find information about a local childcare facility * write an application form for college admissions * role-play a phoneconversation with a company that over-charged you * prepare a business presentation explaining a new product Here is a task with step-by-step instructions on how to carry it out in class. Task: | Create and conduct a survey about cell phone use in public places. |
1. | Have students read an article about the use of cell-phones in public places. | |
2. | In small groups discuss the arguments...