application software The set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending e-mail, balancing a budget, creating presentations,editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games.
artificial intelligence (AI) The science that attempts to produce computers that fdisplay the same type of reasoning and intelligence that humans do.
authentication The process of identifying a computer user, based on a login or username and password. The computer system determines whether the computer user is authorized and what levelof access is to be granted on the network.
backup utility A software application that creates a duplicate copy of selected data on the hard disk and copies it to another storage device.
basic input/output system (BIOS) A program that manages the data between the operating system and all the input and output devices attached to the computer system. BIOS is also responsible for loading theoperating system (OS) from its permanent location on the hard drive to random access memory (RAM).
batch processing Accumulating transaction data until a certain point is reached, then processing those transactions all at once.
Bluetooth Technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances.
black-hat hackers Hackers who use their knowledge to destroy information or for illegal gain.Boolean operators Words used to refine logical searches. For Internet searches these words—AND, NOT, and OR— describe the relationships between keywords in the search.
boot process (or start-up process) Process for loading the operating system into random access memory (RAM) when the computer is turned on.
bus (or linear bus) topology A system of networking connections in which all devices areconnected to a central cable called the bus (or backbone).
business-to-business (B2B) E-commerce transactions between businesses.
business-to-consumer (B2C) E-commerce transactions between businesses and consumers
byte Eight binary digits (or bits). can holg one character of data
C The predecessor language of C++, developed originally for system programmers by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchieof AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1978. It provides higher-level programming language features (such as if statements and for loops) but still allows programmers to manipulate the system memory and central processing unit (CPU) registers directly.
C++ The successor language to C, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. It uses all of the same symbols and keywords as C but extends the language withadditional keywords, better security, and more support for the reuse of existing code through object-oriented design.
cable Internet connection A data transmission line that transmits data at high speeds along coaxial or fiber-optic cable.
cable modem A device that enables a computer to send data over cable lines. A modem modulates and demodulates the signal into digital data and back again.
coaxialcable A single copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic insulation and sheathing used mainly in cable television and cable Internet service.
computer forensics The application of computer systems and techniques to gather potential legal evidence; a law enforcement specialty used to fight hightech crime.
connectivity port A port that enables the computer (or other device) to be connected toother devices or systems such as networks, modems, and the Internet.
consumer-to-consumer (C2C) E-commerce transactions between consumers through online sites such as eBay.com.
Control (Ctrl) key One of the keys on a PC computer keyboard that is used in combination with other keys to perform shortcuts and special tasks.
cookies Small text files that some Web sites automatically store on a...