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For Examination from 2012 1 hour

Candidates answer on the Question Paper. No Additional Materials are required. READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name in the spaces at the top of this page. Write in dark blue or black pen.Answer all questions. The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question. Suggestions for how long to spend on each section are given in the booklet.

For Examiner's Use 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Total

This document consists of 12 printed pages. [Turn over

© UCLES 2011

2 Section A: Reading Spend 20 minutes on this section. Read the text then answerthe questions.
For Examiner's Use

Fossils Fossils are the remains or evidence of animals or plants which have been preserved naturally. They range from the skeletons of huge dinosaurs to tiny plants and animals which can only be seen under a microscope. Most fossils are formed from the hard parts of animals and plants such as shells, bones, teeth or wood. They may be virtually unchanged fromthe originals, or be mineral replacements. Animals and plants have also been preserved in peat, tar, ice and amber, the resin of ancient trees. Eggs, footprints and burrows can be fossilized too. The study of fossils, called palaeontology, shows us that life originated on Earth at least 3,500 million years ago. Since then there has been a succession of animal and plant species. Most are now extinctand only a tiny proportion have survived as fossils. By studying these survivors, we have a fascinating glimpse of ancient life on Earth. The process of changing from a living organism to a fossil takes place over millions of years. Fossilization is an extremely chancy process. As soon as animals and plants die, they begin to decompose, or rot. The hard parts, such as the shells, bones, and teethof animals, or the wood of plants, last longer than soft tissue but they are often scattered by animals, wind or flowing water. In order for something to be fossilized it must be buried quickly before it decomposes. This is most likely to be done by sediment like sand or mud washed down by water. Some fossils later dissolve; others may be changed chemically or be distorted due to high temperaturesand pressures. Only a tiny fraction will survive to be found.


What are most fossils formed from? [1]


What does the study of fossils show us about the origin of life on Earth? [1]

© UCLES 2011


3 3 Tick ( ) two boxes to show which materials are most likely to be involved in the formation of fossils. concrete mud pebbles rocks sand [2] 4 Re-write the secondparagraph to include the main points using about 30 words.
For Examiner's Use


© UCLES 2011


[Turn over

4 5 Tick ( ) the best description of the text ‘Fossils’. It contains only facts. It contains mostly facts. It contains mostly opinions. It contains about half facts and half opinions. [1] 6 Compare these texts. Text 1 Many people enjoy fossil hunting. Fossils areusually formed from the hard parts of a plant or animal such as wood, bones and shells. These materials do not decompose as quickly as soft parts and last long enough for fossilization to occur. Text 2 You’d love fossil hunting – it’s great fun! Woody bits from plants plus hard bits like bones and shells from animals can change into fossils. Soft parts are squashy and squidgy and rot away morequickly before fossils have a chance to form.
For Examiner's Use

The information in both texts is the same but the style of language used is different. Tick ( ) the text you prefer to read. Text 1 Text 2 Explain why you chose that text.


© UCLES 2011


5 Read the text, another report from an information book, and then answer the questions.

A Pearl is Born Pearls...
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