2nd completely revised and extended edition
Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York 2003
Author Günter Seeber, Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Institut für Erdmessung Universität Hannover Schneiderberg 50 30167 Hannover Germany
1st edition 1993 This book contains 281 figures and 64 tables.
Printed on acid-free paper whichfalls within the guidelines of the ANSI to ensure permanence and durability. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Seeber, Günter, 1941 [Satellitengeodäsie. English] Satellite geodesy : foundations, methods, and applications / Günter Seeber. 2nd completely rev. and extended ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 3-11-017549-5 (alk. paper) 1. Satellite geodesy. I.Title. QB343 .S4313 2003 526 .1 dc21 2003053126
ISBN 3-11-017549-5 Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de .
Copyright 2003 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 10785 Berlin All rights reserved, including thoseof translation into foreign languages. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in Germany Cover design: Rudolf Hübler, Berlin Typeset using the authors TEX files: I. Zimmermann, FreiburgPrinting and binding: Hubert & Co. GmbH & Co. Kg, Göttingen
To the memory of my grandson Johannes
Methods of satellite geodesy are increasingly used in geodesy, surveying engineering, and related disciplines. In particular, the modern development of precise and operational satellite based positioning and navigation techniques have entered all ﬁelds of geosciences and engineering. Agrowing demand is also evident for ﬁne-structured gravity ﬁeld models from new and forthcoming satellite missions and for the monitoring of Earth’s rotation in space. For many years I have had the feeling that there is a deﬁnite need for a systematic textbook covering the whole subject, including both its foundations and its applications. It is my intention that this book should, at least in part,help to fulﬁll this requirement. The material presented here is partly based on courses taught at the University of Hannover since 1973 and on guest lectures given abroad. It is my hope that this material can be used at other universities for similar courses. This book is intended to serve as a text for advanced undergraduates and for graduates, mainly in geodesy, surveying engineering,photogrammetry, cartography and geomatics. It is also intended as a source of information for professionals who have an interest in the methods and results of satellite geodesy and who need to acquaint themselves with new developments. In addition, this book is aimed at students, teachers, professionals and scientists from related ﬁelds of engineering and geosciences, such as terrestrial and spacenavigation, hydrography, civil engineering, trafﬁc control, GIS technology, geography, geology, geophysics and oceanography. In line with this objective, the character of the book falls somewhere between that of a textbook and that of a handbook. The background required is an undergraduate level of mathematics and elementary mathematical statistics. Because of rapid and continuous developments in thisﬁeld, it has been necessary to be selective, and to give greater weight to some topics than to others. Particular importance has been attached to the fundamentals and to the applications, especially to the use of artiﬁcial satellites for the determination of precise positions. A comprehensive list of references has been added for further reading to facilitate deeper and advanced studies. The ﬁrst...