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Unit 3 RAW MATERIALS AND ENERGY
TASK 1: RAW MATERIALS AND ENERGY TASK 2: PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS. TASK 3: THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY. TASK 4: WATER, A NATURAL RESOURCE. TASK 5: EUROPEAN UNION

TASK 6: SPAIN.

TASK 1: RAW MATERIALS: MINERALS
RAW MATERIALS: natural elements that human beings use for direct consumption, to create products and satisfy their power requirements. Threeorigins:
ANIMAL (meat, fish, wool,…) VEGETABLE (cotton, wood, fruits,…) MINERAL (metal, water, …)

On the Earth there are different types of metals, they can be grouped into three:
METALLIC MINERALS: from which metals are extracted (gold, silver, copper, iron) NON-METALLIC MINERALS (limestone, marble, plaster, subterranean water) ENERGETIC MINERALS: those which provide power (coal, gas, petroleum,uranium)

MINERAL RESOURCES are located in the Earth’s subsoil, under the Earth’s surface. Mining is the activity used to extract them. They are found in:
Underground mines Open cast mines

RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES

Resources can be renewable or nonrenewable.
The renewable resources are those which are not exhausted or which recover after their consumption in a short periodof time. The non-renewable resources are those whose amount is limited or the process of recuperation is very slow.

Minerals are non-renewable resources. Some minerals can be recycled (aluminum, iron), others cannot (petroleum, coal)

MINERAL RAW MATERIALS
Energetic Non-energetic

Metallic · · · · Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Uranium · Iron · Aluminum · Copper · Lead · Zinc · Magnesium ·Gold · Silver …

Non-metallic

· Limestone · Clay · Plaster · Marble · Potassium · Salt ...

Non-energetic minerals
Among metallic and non-metallic minerals, the most important ones:
IRON is used to produce steel. The main iron producing countries are Australia, Brazil, China, Russia and India. BAUXITE is used to produce aluminum. The largest deposits of bauxite are found in Australia,Guinea, India, Indonesia and Brazil. But the main producers are United States, Russia and China. COPPER is the basical material to make cables which carry electrical energy. The main producing countries are Chile, US, Indonesia, Canada and Peru.

Deposits of metallic or non-metallic minerals are not equally distributed around the world. The consumption of materials varies among countries. In generaldeveloped countries consume more raw materials than underdeveloped countries. The difference of places of production and places of consumption causes an intense mineral commerce.

ENERGY
The energy consumption is an indicator of the degree of development of a country. Most of the energy is consumed in developed countries. This is due to several factors:
Industry is greater in developedcountries. The service sector is bigger in developed countries. The installation of electricity. The illumination of roads.

Unit 3 RAW MATERIALS AND ENERGY
TASK 1: RAW MATERIALS AND ENERGY TASK 2: PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS. TASK 3: THE PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY. TASK 4: WATER, A NATURAL RESOURCE. TASK 5: EUROPEAN UNION

TASK 6: SPAIN.

TASK 2: PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS The main sources ofenergy are petroleum, natural gas

The main sources of energy are petroleum, natural gas and electricity. Petroleum and natural gas are raw materials, basic minerals. Their main use is for the production of energy, but they are also used to make plastics, insecticides, medicines,… They are non-renewable resources. Both were formed by the decomposition of buried marine organisms. The process tookmillions of years. There are problems:
We consume them quicker than they can be produced. Present techniques only allow the extraction of 40% of the deposits and the remainder is abandoned. The deposits are a great distance from the centres of main consumption, so it is necessary to transport them. (Gas ducts transport gas, pipelines transport petroleum. Also specially constructed ships are used...
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