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Developments in Clay Science, 2

APPLIED CLAY MINERALOGY
Occurrences, Processing and Application of Kaolins, Bentonites, PalygorskiteSepiolite, and Common Clays

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Developments in Clay Science, 2

APPLIED CLAY MINERALOGY
Occurrences, Processing and Application of Kaolins, Bentonites, PalygorskiteSepiolite, and Common Clays

HAYDN H. MURRAYProfessor Emeritus Department of Geological Sciences Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.A.

Amsterdam  Boston  Heidelberg  London  New York  Oxford Paris  San Diego  San Francisco  Singapore  Sydney  Tokyo

Elsevier Radarweg 29, PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK First edition 2007 Copyright r 2007 ElsevierB.V. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax(+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@elsevier.com. Alternatively you can submit your request online by visiting the Elsevier web site at http://elsevier.com/locate/permissions, and selecting Obtaining permission to use Elsevier material Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence orotherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library of Congress British LibraryCataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN-13: 978-0-444-51701-2 ISBN-10: 0-444-51701-4 ISSN: 1572-4352 For information on all Elsevier publications visit our website at books.elsevier.com Printed and bound in The Netherlands 07 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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CONTENTS

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure and Composition of the Clay Minerals and their Physical and Chemical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geology and Location ofMajor Industrial Clay Deposits . . . . . . . . . . . . Exploration, Mining, and Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kaolin Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bentonite Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Palygorskite and Sepiolite Applications . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Clays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commonly Used Tests and Procedures for Evaluating Kaolin Samples. . . Common Tests for Evaluation of Ball Clay Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commonly Used Tests to Evaluate Bentonite Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Palygorskite–Sepiolite Laboratory Tests . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7 33 67 85 111 131 141 149 161 169 171 179

Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Appendix D.

Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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vii

PREFACE...
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