Globaization

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24th special session of the UN General Assembly, entitled "World Summit for Social Development and beyond: achieving social development for all in a globalizing world", held in Geneva from 26 June to 1 July 2000. Preparatory Committee Report.
http://globalizace.ecn.cz/texty/osn_1.html [last accessed 15/12/2011].
"Main features of globalization.
Globalization has closely intertwinedeconomic, political, cultural and institutional dimensions whose social impact is often not easy to disentangle. Notwithstanding the breadth and complexity of the process, its principal elements are well known.
a) Technological advancements, especially in the field of information and communication technologies, have had the effect of connecting and bringing the world closer together in time andspace, making possible new ways of doing business and profoundly altering social interactions.
b) Domestic deregulation and liberalization of external capital controls have propelled a vast increase in the volume and speed of capital flows of all types, ranging from foreign direct investment (FDI) to short-term banking flows, worldwide. Competition has catalysed a reorganization of productionnetworks, and a wave of mergers and acquisitions have fostered the restructuring of corporations on a global scale, giving them unprecedented size and power.
c) New mass media, such as satellite television and the Internet, have contributed to globalization and the spread of a culture of consumerism.
Main experiences of globalisation.
As a result of greater access to markets, newtechnologies and new ways of doing business, many aspects of globalization have stimulated growth and prosperity and expanded possibilities for millions of people all over the world.
At the same time, it has been accompanied by anxiety about its disruptive effects and a sense that the opportunities provided by the process of globalization have not been accessible to many. It has enhanced choices for somepeople but diminished prospects for others and reinforced inequalities within and across nations. Perceptions of globalization depend a great deal on the ability of people to take advantage of the opportunities offered by it. Typically, it is most positive for people with adequate education and access to financial resources.
The actual experience of globalization has, to a great degree, variedwith the level of development at which a country has engaged with it. Some developing countries and countries with economies in transition have been well positioned to take advantage of the new opportunities for trade and investment, and building on domestic savings, foreign investment and capital inflows, technology transfers, human resource development and export orientation, have achieved rapideconomic growth.
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Others, particularly the least developed countries, have not been able to achieve the same levels of foreign investment or access to world markets, primarily due to an inadequate economic and social infrastructure. Not only have they been unable to grasp the opportunities offered by globalization but they have also had to cope with its impacts, particularly the volatility ofinternational commodity prices, the reduction of effective preferential treatment for their exports owing to falling overall tariffs and the decline of official development assistance (ODA).
Case studies.
A study conducted on behalf of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs on the experience of nine countries (Argentina, Colombia, Cuba, India, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, the RussianFederation, Turkey and Zimbabwe) as a result of liberalization of trade and capital raises several concerns about its social impact.
a) In general, liberalization has led to greater inequality of primary incomes. In all but one case, household per capita income growth was negative or just above zero.
b) While the participation rate or share of the economically active population...
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