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INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL FILTERS
Analog and digital filters
In signal processing, the function of a filter is to remove unwanted parts of the signal, such as random noise, or to extract useful parts of the signal, such as the components lying within a certain frequency range. The following block diagram illustrates the basic idea.

There are two main kinds of filter, analog and digital. Theyare quite different in their physical makeup and in how they work. An analog filter uses analog electronic circuits made up from components such as resistors, capacitors and op amps to produce the required filtering effect. Such filter circuits are widely used in such applications as noise reduction, video signal enhancement, graphic equalisers in hi-fi systems, and many other areas. There arewell-established standard techniques for designing an analog filter circuit for a given requirement. At all stages, the signal being filtered is an electrical voltage or current which is the direct analogue of the physical quantity (e.g. a sound or video signal or transducer output) involved. A digital filter uses a digital processor to perform numerical calculations on sampled values of the signal.The processor may be a general-purpose computer such as a PC, or a specialised DSP (Digital Signal Processor) chip. The analog input signal must first be sampled and digitised using an ADC (analog to digital converter). The resulting binary numbers, representing successive sampled values of the input signal, are transferred to the processor, which carries out numerical calculations on them. Thesecalculations typically involve multiplying the input values by constants and adding the products together. If necessary, the results of these calculations, which now represent sampled values of the filtered signal, are output through a DAC (digital to analog converter) to convert the signal back to analog form. Note that in a digital filter, the signal is represented by a sequence of numbers,rather than a voltage or current. The following diagram shows the basic setup of such a system.

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Advantages of using digital filters
The following list gives some of the main advantages of digital over analog filters. 1. A digital filter is programmable, i.e. its operation is determined by a program stored in the processor's memory. This means the digital filter can easily be changed withoutaffecting the circuitry (hardware). An analog filter can only be changed by redesigning the filter circuit. Digital filters are easily designed, tested and implemented on a general-purpose computer or workstation. The characteristics of analog filter circuits (particularly those containing active components) are subject to drift and are dependent on temperature. Digital filters do not suffer fromthese problems, and so are extremely stable with respect both to time and temperature. Unlike their analog counterparts, digital filters can handle low frequency signals accurately. As the speed of DSP technology continues to increase, digital filters are being applied to high frequency signals in the RF (radio frequency) domain, which in the past was the exclusive preserve of analog technology.Digital filters are very much more versatile in their ability to process signals in a variety of ways; this includes the ability of some types of digital filter to adapt to changes in the characteristics of the signal. Fast DSP processors can handle complex combinations of filters in parallel or cascade (series), making the hardware requirements relatively simple and compact in comparison with theequivalent analog circuitry.

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Operation of digital filters
In this section, we will develop the basic theory of the operation of digital filters. This is essential to an understanding of how digital filters are designed and used. Suppose the "raw" signal which is to be digitally filtered is in the form of a voltage waveform described by the function

V = x(t )...
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