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Ver 1.2 2nd June 2006 HHO Dry CellElectrolyzer
The electrolyzer shown in Figure 1 is based on the common-duct series-cell electrolyzer concept originally developed and patented by William Rhodes, Ernest Spirig, Yull Brown and later refined by Bob Boyce, George Wiseman, etc… It uses an alkaline (NaOH, KOH) electrolyte to split distilled water into hydrogen and oxygen components very efficiently.
The produced hydrogen and oxygengasses are not separated to separate containers, but kept mixed. The produced oxyhydrogen gas is a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen (2 parts vol.) and oxygen (1 part vol.) and can be combusted in vacuum.
The combination of series-cell topology is very efficient, because it allows the cells to operate as close to their optimal cell voltage (1.47V) as possible. The electrolyzer runs fairly cool,at about 30-50 C depending on the current and electrolyte.
The electrolyzer shown in this report has about 80-90% total efficiency when all things are considered (ambient temperature, ambient pressure, accurate measurement of gas volume and current) when powered by straight DC. Pulsing (PWM) or modulation of the input voltage waveform could increase the performance further, as it is known that inthe beginning of each pulse larger current flows than in the steady state condition, thus lowering the cell voltage needed to push thru a certain amount of current and increasing the efficiency slightly. There are also claims of various resonance phenomena (Boyce, Meyer, etc.) that supposedly dramatically increase the gas production rate vs. input current when the electrolyzer is driven with acertain type of PWM rich in harmonics. However, this author has not been able to replicate any resonance modes in any sort of electrolyzer.
The electrolyzer has 7 cells with a target input voltage of about 12.9-14.1Vdc depending on temperature. This makes the cell voltage about 1.85-2.0V.
Gas vent hole in each plateElectrolyte level ~20mm below gas vent holeElectrolyte in each compartment ispracticallyisolated from other compartments, but thereare 3mm diameter electrolyte level equalization holes drilled in the bottom corner of each plate (staggered)Gas output, water input valvePlate spacing 3mm, active plate area ~170cm^2 per sidePVC end plateStainless steel electrodesSoft transparent PVC spacers rings
Figure 1. Series cell electrolyzer cross-section
Theeight electrolyzer plates (Figure 2) are about 0.8mm thick 160mm x 200 mm stainless steel (304 grade). A 10mm gas vent hole is drilled in each plate. The electrolyte level is always about 25mm below the gas vent hole. There are 3mm diameter liquid level equalization holes drilled in the bottom corner of each plate (not shown) in such a way that adjacent plates have holes in opposite corners.Staggering and using small holes minimizes any efficiency loss due to current leakage between cells, but makes electrolyte refilling and level equalization significantly easier. The two end plates have a small SS piece welded for electrical contact. After taking the picture the plates were sanded with an orbital sander to expose clear metal and then cross-hatch pattern was "engraved" on the plates with arough file attached to a wooden block. This is to increase the active surface area of the plates and seems necessary for ultra high efficiency. Other methods to increase plate area exist as well. Figure 2. Stainless steel hho plates (8 total)p style="width: 565px" class="auto-style1"
Nine spacers (Figure 3) were cut out of 3mm thick soft and transparent PVC sheet with a knife. The wall...