HISTORY OF THE ORCHESTRA
The word orchestra comes from Greek and means "place to dance." This brings us back around the V century a. C. when presentations were made in open-air theaters(amphitheaters). In front of the main area of action was a space for singers, dancers and instruments. This area was called orchestra. Today, band refers to a large group of musicians playing together; theexact number depends on the type of music.
The history of the orchestra as instrumentalists goes back to the beginning of the sixteenth century. Although in reality this "organized" group really tookshape in the early eighteenth century. Before that, the sets were highly variable, a random collection of performers, often formed by musicians available locally.
Today we distinguish
Stringorchestras: which are composed of 1st and 2nd violins, violas, cellos and basses.
Symphony orchestras: composed of numerous wood-wind instruments and metal percussion instruments and a string group.Chamber orchestra: composed of stringed instruments, and by some woodwinds and metal.
Special Purpose orchestras: whose composition is variable: jazz orchestra, Lounge, mandolins, balalaikas, etc.Until about 1750, the orchestras were composed primarily of wood and string instruments, horns, trumpets, two timpani and continuo (harpsichord with viola da gamba or cello). Mannheim School incorporatedthe clarinet in the orchestra and remove the harpsichord. The creator of the orchestra in the form that we know it today was Haydn: String. 2 flutes, oboes, and 0 clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets,2 or 3 trombones and two timpani.
Beethoven gave a greater role for the metal wind instruments and drums, but the great innovator of the romantic orchestra was Berlioz. The increase in the group ofwind instruments of wood and metal made it necessary to increase the string group and made the sound of the orchestra more rich and impressive.
THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA
At the time of Claudio...
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