Informacion de australia en ingles

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Australia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation).
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Commonwealth of Australia

Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: "Advance Australia Fair"[N 1]
Capital Canberra
Largest city Sydney
Official language(s) None[N 2]
National language English (de facto)[N 2]
Demonym Australian, Aussie[3][4]Government Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
- Monarch Elizabeth II
- Governor-General Quentin Bryce
- Prime Minister Julia Gillard
Legislature Parliament
- Upper House Senate
- Lower House House of Representatives
Independence from the United Kingdom
- Constitution 1 January 1901
- Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931
-Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 9 October 1942 (with effect from 3 September 1939)
- Australia Act 3 March 1986
Area
- Total 7,617,930 km2 (6th)
2,941,299 sq mi
Population
- 2011 estimate 22,713,037[5] (50th)
- 2006 census 19,855,288[6]
- Density 2.8/km2 (233rd)
7.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2010 estimate
- Total $882.362 billion[7] (17th)
- Per capita$39,699[7] (9th)
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
- Total $1.235 trillion[7] (13th)
- Per capita $55,589[7] (6th)
Gini (2006) 30.5[8] (medium)
HDI (2010) increase 0.937[9] (very high) (2nd)
Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Time zone various[N 3] (UTC+8 to +10.5)
- Summer (DST) various[N 3] (UTC+8 to +11.5)
Drives on the left
ISO 3166 code AU
Internet TLD .au
Calling code +61Australia (play /əˈstreɪljə/), officially the Commonwealth of Australia,[10] is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[N 4] It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to thenorth, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia to the northeast and New Zealand to the southeast.

For at least 40,000 years before European settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians,[12] who belonged to one or more of roughly 250 language groups.[13][14] After discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by GreatBritain in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades; the continent was explored and an additional five self-governing Crown Colonies were established.

On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia hasmaintained a stable liberal democratic political system which functions as a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The federation comprises six states and several territories. The population of 22.6 million is heavily concentrated in the Eastern states and is highly urbanised.

A highly developed country, Australia is the world's thirteenth largest economy and has the world'sseventh-highest per capita income. Australia's military expenditure is the world's twelfth largest. With the second-highest human development index globally, Australia ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, economic freedom and the protection of civil liberties and political rights.[15] Australia is a member of the G20, OECD,WTO, APEC, UN, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, and the Pacific Islands Forum.
Contents
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1 Etymology
2 History
3 Politics
4 States and territories
5 Foreign relations and military
6 Geography and climate
7 Environment
8 Economy
9 Demography
9.1 Language
9.2 Religion
9.3 Education
9.4 Health
10 Culture...
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