Inglés (grammar)

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Unit one

Be, like, be like, look like:

 What / be / subject / like? : General description.

E.g:
 What is the city like?
 What was the film like?
 What were the people like?

 What / do-does-did / subject / look like? : Physical appearance.

E.g:
 What does your brother look like?

 How / be / subject? : About someone health.

E.g:
 How are you?

Irregularadjectives and adverbs

 Adverbs modify verbs or adjectives.
 Most adverbs are formed adding ly to the adjective.
 When the adjectives end in ly you use way.

E.g:
 He spoke in such a silly way.

 Hardly: it has a negative connotation so we use it with an affirmative verb.
It means almost nothing.

E.g:
 I hardly believe what he tells me.

Comparisons:

 By far – slightly + er-est – more – most.
 As + adj – adv +as

E.g:
 As well as: tan bien como.
 As good as: tan bueno como.

Adjective order

1) Adjectives of opinion and general description.
Eg: beautiful, interesting, lovely.

2) Adjectives of size and weight.
Eg: big, short, small, heavy.

3) Adjectives of age.
Eg: old, new, young, antique.

4) Adjectives of shape.
Eg: round,square, circular, rectangular.

5) Adjectives of colour.
Eg: green, black, orange, white, blue.

6) Adjectives of country of origin.
Eg: Swiss, Spanish, English, American.

7) Adjectives of material.
Eg: woolly, wooden, leather, plastic, glass.

8) Adjectives of purpose and power.
Eg: walking(socks), cutting, running, electric.

Unit two

Simple present:

The simple present is usedto:

 To talk about things which happen regularly or are always true.

E.g:
 Tom starts work at 8.30 am.
 The sun rises in the east.

 With adverbs of time.

E.g:
 Never, always, usually, sometimes.

 To give instructions.

E.g:
 First, you put the key in the lock, then you turn it very gently.

Present continuous:

The present continuous is used:

To talk about things that are happening at the moment.

E.g:
 Some researchers are interviewing the teachers now.

 To talk about things that are happening over a longer period of time.

E.g:
 The government is carrying out some research into ways of learning foreign languages.

 With always to express surprise or annoyance when something happens often.

E.g:
 That student isalways coming to class late.

Verbs rarely used in the present continuous:

Verbs of feeling:

 Like.
 Dislikes.
 Love.
 Hate.
 Need.
 Want.
 Prefer.

Verbs of appearance:

 Appear.
 Seem.

Verbs of possession:

 Own.
 Belong to.
 Have.

Verbs of physical perception:

 Smell.
 See.
 Taste.
 Hear.

Verbs of thinking:

 Know.
 Realize.
 Suppose.
Understand.
 Believe.

These verbs refer to states or conditions, not action:

 I love music.
 You seem unhappy today.

Unit four

Simple past:

The simple past is used:

 To talk about completed actions in the past.

E.g:
 A group of musicians suddenly appeared.
 The musicians started to play jazz.

 With expressions that refer to points of time.

E.g:
 At 6o´clock, on Wednesday, in May, two days ago, last week, the day before yesterday, when I was a child.

 To describe a number of actions happening one after the other.

E.g:
 Theatre-goers put money into a box, entered the theatre, then found their seats.

 To discuss events which were completed at a particular time in the past.

E.g:
 I went on a safari to Africa last year.
 The bus waslate this morning.

 To talk about a series of events in a story.

E.g:
 Sally bought a ticket and caught the next train home.

Past continuous:

The past continuous is used:

 To talk about tings that where happening when another action took place.

E.g:
 As we were waiting for the film to start, the lights in the cinema suddenly went out.

 To set the scene in a story....
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