English Syntax and Argumentation
ENGLISH SYNTAX AND ARGUMENTATION
MODERN LINGUISTICS SERIES
Series Editors Professor Noel Burton-Roberts ¨ University of Newcastle upon Tyne Professor Andrew Spencer University of Essex Each textbook in the Modern Linguistics series is designed to provide a carefully graded introduction to a topic in contemporary linguisticsand allied disciplines, presented in a manner that is accessible and attractive to readers with no previous experience of the topic, but leading them to some understanding of current issues. The texts are designed to engage the active participation of the reader, favouring a problem-solving approach and including liberal and varied exercise material. Noel Burton-Roberts founded the ModernLinguistics series and acted as ¨ Series Editor for the ﬁrst three volumes in the series. Andrew Spencer has since joined Noel Burton-Roberts as Series Editor. ¨ Titles published in the series English Syntax and Argumentation (second edition) Bas Aarts Phonology Philip Carr Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition Vivian Cook Sociolinguistics: A Reader and Coursebook Nikolas Coupland and Adam JaworskiFrancis Katamba Morphology Contact Languages: Pidgins and Creoles Mark Sebba Further titles in preparation
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English Syntax and Argumentation
Second edition Bas Aarts
Reader in Modern English Language University College London
& Bas Aarts 1997, 2001 All rights reserved. Noreproduction, copy or transmission of this publication may be made without written permission. No paragraph of this publication may be reproduced, copied or transmitted save with written permission or in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, or under the terms of any licence permitting limited copying issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency, 90 Tottenham CourtRoad, London W1T 4LP. Any person who does any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The authors have asserted their rights to be identiﬁed as the authors of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. First edition published 1997 Second edition published 2001 by PALGRAVE Houndmills,Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS and 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010 Companies and representatives throughout the world PALGRAVE is the new global academic imprint of St. Martin’s Press LLC Scholarly and Reference Divison and Palgrave Publishers Ltd (formerly Macmillan Press Ltd). ISBN 0–333–94987–0 hardback ISBN 0–333–94986–2 paperback This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and madefrom fully managed and sustained forest sources. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Aarts, Bas, 1961– English syntax and argumentation / Bas Aarts — 2nd ed. p. cm. — (Modern linguistics series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0–333–94987–0 — ISBN 0–333–94986–2 (pbk.) 1. Englishlanguage—Syntax. 2. English language—Semantics. 3. Persuasion (Rhetoric) I. Title. II. Modern linguistics series (Palgrave (Firm)) PE1369 A2 2001 425 21; aa05 04–03—dc01 2001021749 13 11 12 11 10 9 8 10 09 08 07 06 7 6 5 4 05 04 03 02
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