Jose de san martin biography

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José de San Martin


Biography
San Martin was born in Yapeyu, in the Argentine province of Corrientes, beside the mighty Uruguay river, on February 25th 1778.

His father, Don Juan de San Martin, was the governor of the department; her mother, Doña Gregoria Matorras, was the niece of a conqueror of the Chaco´s wildforests
In 1786 he is transferred to Spain with his family, where he studies in the Noble Seminary of Madrid and, in 1789, he initiates his military career in the regiment of Murcia. He serves in the army of Spain during the wars against the French and in 1808 he fights in the battle of Baylen against Napoleon´s army that had invaded the Peninsula.

In the city of Cadiz he knows other SouthAmerican officers and he joins the lodges that promoted the independence. In 1811 he resigns to his military career in Spain and embarks in the sail ship George Canning from England to Buenos Aires, where he arrives March 9 1812 accompanied by other friends.

The independent government of Buenos Aires accepts the services of San Martin, recognizes his degree of lieutenant colonel and orders him tocreate a cavalry corp that soon would be known as the glorious regiment of Mounted Grenadiers. On that same year he married Maria Remedies de Escalada that belonged to a distinguished family of the country. He creates the Lautaro lodge, whose objective was to liberate South America of the Spanish rule. In October 1812, the members of the lodge head a movement that intends to remove some members ofthe First Triunvirato (the government). Pacifically, the Town Hall names a Segundo Triunvirato, who, soon after, calls to a Delegates Assembly of the Provinces with the purpose of dictating a Constitution.
On February 3rd, 1813, the Mounted Grenadiers fought and won their first combat near the ravines of San Lorenzo against the Spanish disembarkment army that arrived with several ships from theport of Montevideo.

In January of 1814, San Martin takes control of the North Army, from the hands of its former general, Belgrano, that had returned defeated from the Alto Peru -today the republic of Bolivia-, and since then, they establish a long friendship.

Soon after being in Tucuman, San Martin realized that it was impossible to conquer Lima, the capital of Peru that was the center ofthe Spanish power, by land because the hight of the Andes was an obstacle. He conceived the idea of crossing the mountain range through Chile and to attack the city of Lima by sea.

A disease forces him to request a leave of license and obtains from the government the nomination of Governor of the Cuyo province. He leaves Tucuman for Mendoza, capital of Cuyo, a city that stands at the foot ofthe mountain range of the Andes. There he recovers and begins to prepare an army to cross the Andes.

In 1816 he sends, a delegation to the congress representing the province of Cuyo that met in Tucuman, with express orders to insist on the declaration of independence. Because of his insistence, the declaration of independence from the rule of Spain of the Provincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata-that was the primitive name of what now is the Argentine Republic- was acclaimed in that congress the 9th of July of that year.

From Mendoza with little means he prepares an army. All the people contribute with their work and goods to make the dangerous expedition. He insists before the government of Buenos Aires to allow his army to cross the Andes to get to Chile.
In January 1817 thecrossing of the army begins. They were around 4000 men of infantry, cavalry and artillery carrying provisions for a month. They crossed the passage of Los Patos and the one of Uspallata divided into two columns, the two columns met later in Santa Rosa of the Andes.

On February 12, 1817 a few days after the passing of the Andes, the army, which named “Army of the Andes”, wins the battle of...
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