Leyden bottlle

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  • Publicado : 29 de julio de 2010
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A typical design consists of a glass jar with conducting metal foil coating the inner and outer surfaces. The foil coatings stop short of the mouth of the jar, to prevent the charge from arcingbetween the foils. A rod electrode projects through the mouth of the jar, electrically connected by some means (usually a chain) to the inner foil, to allow it to be charged. The jar is charged by anelectrostatic generator, or other source of electric charge, connected to the inner electrode while the outer foil is grounded. The inner and outer surfaces of the jar store equal but opposite charges.Cross-section diagram from about 1900 showing construction.The original form of the device was just a glass bottle partially filled with water, with a metal wire passing through a cork closing it.The role of the outer plate was provided by the hand of the experimenter. Soon it was found that it was better to coat the exterior of the jar with metal foil (Watson, 1746), leaving the(accidentally) impure water inside acting as a conductor, connected by a chain or wire to an external terminal, a sphere to avoid losses by corona discharge. It was initially believed that the charge was stored inthe water. Benjamin Franklin investigated the Leyden jar, and concluded that the charge was stored in the glass, not in the water, as others had assumed. The charge leaks to the surface of thedielectric if contact is imperfect and the electric field is intense enough. Because of this, the fluid inside can be replaced with a metal foil lining. Early experimenters found that the thinner thedielectric, the closer the plates, and the greater the surface, the greater the charge that could be stored at a given voltage.

Further developments in electrostatics revealed that the dielectricmaterial was not essential, but increased the storage capability (capacitance) and prevented arcing between the plates. Two plates separated by a small distance also act as a capacitor, even in vacuum....
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