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Instructors‘ Solution Manual

THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MATERIALS
Fourth Edition

Instructors‘ Solution Manual

THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MATERIALS
Fourth Edition
Donald R. Askeland Pradeep P. Phulé
Prepared by Gregory Lea

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Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering
1–5 Iron is often coated with a thin layer of zinc if it is to be used outside. Whatcharacteristics do you think the zinc provides to this coated, or galvanized, steel? What precautions should be considered in producing this product? How will the recyclability of the product be affected? Solution: The zinc provides corrosion resistance to the iron in two ways. If the iron is completely coated with zinc, the zinc provides a barrier between the iron and the surrounding environment, thereforeprotecting the underlying iron. If the zinc coating is scratched to expose the iron, the zinc continues to protect the iron because the zinc corrodes preferentially to the iron (see Chapter 22). To be effective, the zinc should bond well to the iron so that it does not permit reactions to occur at the interface with the iron and so that the zinc remains intact during any forming of the galvanizedmaterial. When the material is recycled, the zinc will be lost by oxidation and vaporization, often producing a “zinc dust” that may pose an environmental hazard. Special equipment may be required to collect and either recycle or dispose of the zinc dust.

1–6

We would like to produce a transparent canopy for an aircraft. If we were to use a ceramic (that is, traditional window glass) canopy,rocks or birds might cause it to shatter. Design a material that would minimize damage or at least keep the canopy from breaking into pieces. Solution: We might sandwich a thin sheet of a transparent polymer between two layers of the glass. This approach, used for windshields of automobiles, will prevent the “safety” glass from completely disintegrating when it

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The Science andEngineering of Materials

Instructor’s Solution Manual

fails, with the polymer holding the broken pieces of glass together until the canopy can be replaced. Another approach might be to use a transparent, “glassy” polymer material such as polycarbonate. Some polymers have reasonably good impact properties and may resist failure. The polymers can also be toughened to resist impact by introducingtiny globules of a rubber, or elastomer, into the polymer; these globules improve the energyabsorbing ability of the composite polymer, while being too small to interfere with the optical properties of the material. 1–7 Coiled springs ought to be very strong and stiff. Si3N4 is a strong, stiff material. Would you select this material for a spring? Explain. Solution: Springs are intended to resisthigh elastic forces, where only the atomic bonds are stretched when the force is applied. The silicon nitride would satisfy this requirement. However, we would like to also have good resistance to impact and at least some ductility (in case the spring is overloaded) to assure that the spring will not fail catastrophically. We also would like to be sure that all springs will perform satisfactorily.Ceramic materials such as silicon nitride have virtually no ductility, poor impact properties, and often are difficult to manufacture without introducing at least some small flaws that cause to fail even for relatively low forces. The silicon nitride is NOT recommended.

1–8

Temperature indicators are sometimes produced from a coiled metal strip that uncoils a specific amount when thetemperature increases. How does this work; from what kind of material would the indicator be made; and what are the important properties that the material in the indicator must possess? Solution: Bimetallic materials are produced by bonding two materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion to one another, forming a laminar composite. When the temperature changes, one of the materials will...
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