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Failure mode and effect analysis is a tool that examines potential product or process failures, evaluates risk priorities, and helps determine remedialactions to avoid identified problems. The spreadsheet format allows easy review of the analysis.

When to use it:
Failure mode and effect analysis is primarily a quality planning tool. It is usefulin developing features and goals for both products and processes, in identifying critical product/process factors and designing countermeasures to potential problems, in establishing controls toprevent process errors, and in prioritizing process subunits to ensure reliability.

How to use it:
Create a nine-column spreadsheet. Label the columns as indicated in the example below: Mode ofFailure, Cause of Failure, Effect of Failure, Frequency of Occurrence, Degree of Severity, Chance of Detection, Risk Priority, Design Action, and Design Validation. Use brainstorming to identify all possiblemodes of failure. List each mode on a separate line in column 1. Identify all possible causes of failure for each mode. Use brainstorming to create a list of these causes and add them in column 2.Determine the likely effect of each failure. In column 3, identify the potential impact of failures on the customer, the product, or the process. Create a table of assigned values. For columns 4, 5, and6, develop a consensus table of relative values for assumed frequency of occurrence, the severity of the failure for the customer, and the likelihood of detecting the problem. Record appropriatevalues in columns 4, 5, and 6. Using the table of assigned values, develop a consensus score for frequency of occurrence, the severity of the failure, and the chance of detection for each cause offailure. Calculate the risk factor for each cause of failure. For each cause of failure, multiply the numbers in columns 4, 5, and 6. Record the product in column 7. Identify a remedy for critical failure...
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