In 1810 Hidalgo led a group of indigenous and mestizo peasants in a revolt against the dominant peninsulares under the banner of the Virginof Guadalupe. After clashes with the criollos and Mexican townspeople the group disbanded. Hidalgo was captured on 21 March 1811, and executed on 30 July.
Hidalgo's rebellion was the beginningof what would become the Mexican War of Independence. Although he was unsuccessful in his original aim, Hidalgo's efforts were followed by those of José María Morelos and Agustín de Iturbide whobrought down the colonial governments of Spain in Mexico. Hidalgo is considered the Father of the Nation of Mexico.
Hidalgo was born on May 8, 1753 as the first child of Don Cristobal Hidalgo yCostilla and Dona Ana Maria Gallaga at the estate of San Diego Corralejo in the Penjamo jurisdiction. Hidalgo was born a creole. "In Spanish-American history, the term 'creole' signifies one of pure Spanishblood, born, not in Spain, but in one of the Spanish colonial possessions." Under the system of the day, Hidalgo's rights as a creole were far less than those of someone born in Spain but slightlybetter than a mestizo, someone with a mixture of Spanish and Amerindian ancestry. Both of Hidalgo's parents were descended from well respected families within the creole community. Eight days afterhis birth Hidalgo was baptized into the Roman Catholic faith in the parish church of Cuitzeo de los Naranjos. Hidalgo's parents would have three other sons; Jose Joaquin, Manuel Mariano, and JoseMaria.
In 1759 when Hidalgo was 6, Charles III of Spain ascended the throne; he soon sent out a visitor-general with the power to investigate and reform all parts of colonial government. Privileges...