Modals

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Modal Auxiliaries

Modal auxiliaries do not be used together or with another auxiliary. You have to use it at the beginning of a question or you have to put them after the person and before the verb. These are the modals we will check.

WOULD. It expresses Desire, Invitation, Willingness (Disponibility), Polite request, Inconvenience, conditional, the past form of the modal verb Will. It issimilar to USED TO in past.

I would like to finish my career (Desire)
Would you like to eat something? (Invitation)
If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. Conditional
I would buy more presents for the party if I had more money (Willingness)
She would marry you if you were her age (Inconvenience)
I knew that she would be very successful in her career. Past
I wouldn’t changeanything about me only because you ask me (Refusal)
Would you mind to work on Saturdays? (Polite request)
When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. (Past)

Note: We use after WOULD or WOULDN’T the verb in simple form.

SHALL. This is not common nowadays but sometimes people can use it. You can use SHALL in different ways.

1. As a Future action (WILL or Going to)for I and We. Sometimes it refers to suggestions. In future events it often expresses inevitability or predestination.
I shall go tomorrow.
Shall I help you? Suggestion
We shall fix the car next Saturday.
Shall we go? Suggestion
He shall become our next king. Predestination
I’m afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. Inevitability

2. Promises, Intentions, Threats or Voluntaryactions. Use it for these persons: You, He, She, It and They.

Believe me; they shall come to visit you.
I shall never forget where I come from. Promise
She shall help you to study only if you want.
He shall go to the police officer if you don’t pay him.

3. Obligation or Command. Use it for all the persons.

Shall I open the windows?
Shall Mary clean her room?
Shall you go to thesupermarket?

SHOULD. It expresses a recommendation or advice. It can also be used to express obligation and expectation.

When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. Recommendation
You should study very hard this last period exam
Sandy shouldn’t eat junk food
You should focus more on your family and less on work. Advice
He shouldn’t go to that place, it’s dangerous!Should I go on a diet?
I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM Obligation
You should brush your teeth before you go to bed.
By now, they should already be in Dubai. Expectation

OUGHT TO. As Should (to advise or make recommendations), it expresses the same idea but we use a complement using BECAUSE, so it’s more specific. I also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strongprobability, often with the idea that something is deserved. Ought not (with out TO) is used to advise against doing something.

You ought to study hard for this last period exam because you need to approve the subject.
This stock ought to increase in value. Probability
Sandy ought not to eat junk food because she looks so fat.
You ought to stop smoking. Recommendation
He ought not to go t thatplace because it’s a very dangerous place, every day people die there.
Jim ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it
I ought to go on a diet because I’ve realized some people refuse me.
Mark ought not drink so much. Advice against something

HAD BETTER. It’s like the use of should or ought to, we use it to make recommendations. The difference is that using HAD BETTER werefer to a consequence, use OR to do it. It also expresses desperate hope as well as warn people.

You had better study very hard this last period exam or you’re going to fail the subject.
Sandy had better not eat junk food or she will have healthy problems.
You had better take your umbrella with you today. Recommendation
He’d better not to go to that place or he may have an accident.
I’d...
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