Modelos de color

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Informática III
Modelos de Color

Práctica 3:

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Color Depth
Color “depth” is defined by the number of bits per pixel that can be displayed on a computer screen. Data is stored in bits. Each bit represents two colors because it has a value of 0 or 1. The more bits per pixel, the more colors that can bedisplayed. Examples of color depth are shown in the following table:

Color Depth No. of Colors Color Mode Palette
1bit color 2 Indexed Color Yes
4 bit color 16 Indexed Color Yes
8 bit color 256 Indexed Color Yes
24 bit color 16,777,216 True Color No

Determining Color Depth
Since each bit represents 2 colors, it is easy to work out the number of colors for the various colordepths. The number of possible colors would be 2 to the power of the number of bits per pixel:

A color depth of 8 bits would be 2 times itself 4 times:
2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16 colors

A color depth of 8 bits would be 2 times itself 8 times:
2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 256 colors

A color depth of 24 bits would be 2 times itself 24 times:
2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 16,777,216 colors

True Color and the RBG Color Model
Images are known as “True Color” where each pixel is defined in terms of its actual RGB or CMYK values. Every pixel in a true color image has 256 possible values for each of it’s red, green or blue components (in the RGB model) or cyan, magenta, yellow and black (in the CMYK model). Because thereare 256 possible values for each RGB or CMYK component, then RGB true color would have a 24-bit color depth and CMYK true color would have a 32-bit color depth. There are millions of possible colors for each pixel in a true color image. That’s why it is called “True Color”.

RGB images are derived from the 3 primary colors of red, green, and blue. In the 24-bit RGB color, each red, green and bluecomponent is 8 bits long and has 256 variations in intensity. These variations are represented in a scale of values ranging from 0 to 255 with 0 having least intensity and 255 having the greatest. When the 3 components are combined there are 256 x 256 x 256 possible combinations or 16,77,216 possible colors.

For example, white would be composed of maximum intensity of red, green and blue light(R=256 G=256 B=256) and black would be composed of zero intensity of red, green and blue light (R=0 G=0 B=0). Cyan would be composed of maximum intensity of blue and green light and zero intensity of red light (R=0 G=256 B=256). Magenta would be composed of maximum intensity of red and blue light and zero intensity of green light (R=256 G=0 B=256)

True Color and the CMYK Color Model
Imagesusing the CMYK color model are also true color. CMYK images are derived from the 3 primary colors of cyan, magenta and yellow plus black. In 32-bit CMYK color, each cyan, magenta, yellow and black component is also 8 bits long and has 256 variations in intensity. Each pixel in a 32-bit CMYK image is one of 256 x 256 x 256 possible colors x 256 variations of black. A mix of 100% each of cyan,magenta, and yellow produces black, so the black component is extra. Even though there are more bits per pixel in the CMYK model, in reality it has a smaller color “space” or gamut than RGB. Many graphics programs support both color models.

Indexed Color
Images which do not define colors in terms of their actual RGB or CMYK values and which derive its colors from a “palette” are known as “Indexed...
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